history 179

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cuneiform

3000 B,C,E, Sumerians started drawing pictures, they later used these pictures to develop writing

Ziggurat

a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians

Ahmenhoten IV

Egypts 18th Dynasty pharaoh who abanded traditonal egyption ways and introduced aton as the head god, Henotheism

the Hyksos

group of people who moved into the Nile Delta around 1640 brought egypt to the bronze age.

hatshepsut

female pharaoh who expanded Egypt through trade

Battle of Kadesh

around 1300 B.C.Hittites and Egyptians go to war and end up making peace-beneficial to both allance with both and babylonians, first allance evry between major nations

cyrus 1

550 bc, king of persians, united iran

The persian wars

A series of wars where the Greek city-states united against Persia, and managed to maintain control of the Aegean Sea and push the Persian Empire back

30 tyrants

404 bc after the pelopnnesian war tyrants from sparta take over athens and forces laws and killed any politcal opponets forced little rights with athens people only so many could vote

xerxes

son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.

pericles

Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece

alexander the great

king of Macedon

the peloponnesian war

Tensions led to two armed camps, under leadership of Athens and Sparta; unconditional surrender of Athens, 404 BCE

Punic wars

A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.

gracchie brothers

163 - 133 bc tibers gaius startes reforms in Rome both pass laws to help poor

client Armies

troops that were loyal to their commander rome used these armys from there concered lands like gaul horse armed troops were used because of a lack of calvery in the roman armys

first triumuirate

political allance, caesar, macus lilinius crassius and pompeius

2nd triumuirate

octacianus mark antony lepidus unlike the first triumuirate this one was a legal institution

patria potestos

Roman Family law, says children are porperty of father

the golden age of rome

1 cent rome was political stabitity armys started to defend 5 good empoiros time in between punic and peloponnnesian wars

edict of milan

issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire

council of nicea

stated that Jesus is fully human because he represents humanity to God and divine because God gave him power to save us. where creed was written m

Julian the apostate

Constantine's successor that was not Christian. He was the last emperor to rule both portions of the Roman Empire. He was the emperor that was responsible for accepting the orthodox, catholic line upheld by Athanasius against Arianism. His death was the last chance for freedom of worship for pagans in the east

justinian

Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians noun

valens

Ruled 314 AD. His full name was Caius Aurelius Valerian Valens. He was created 'Augustus' by Licinius I in 314 AD, but was murdered very soon afterwards. So as not to confuse him with the later Valens, we might call him 'Valerian Valens'

charlemagne

King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning

Three orders of Medieval Society

those who pray", "those who fight", and "those who work"

Donation of Constantine

This was a fraudulent Roman imperial edict which was supposedly written by Constantine the Great. In this edict, the Pope was given the power of civil authority. Later on during the Renaissance period, this edict was proven to be fabricated

Investiture Conflict

between Gregory VII and Henry IV....separate entities church won

Uthman

. 644-656 AD was the third Caliph. He was from the Umayyad clan, and was one of Muhammad's son-in-laws. 1. He distributed land, power and wealth to his friends and family. This upset many other wealthy and powerful Muslims

Pope Innocent III

caled for 4th crusade clashed with King John and won; Church reached height of political power under his papacy; believed pope was the supreme judge of all European affairs; used interdicts

The Hundred Years War

french king won land england lost. 1337 1453.war between France and England for the French throne that continued from 1337 to 1453, and introduced the use of new weapons

the impact of the black death

destroyed many people and towns, gave more money to peasants to work

The Great Western Schism

This schism of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries differs in all points from the Eastern Schism. The latter was a real revolt against the supreme authority of the Church, fomented by the ambition of the patriarchs of Constantinople, favoured by the Greek emperors, supported by the Byzantine clergy and people, and lasting nine centuries. The Western Schism was only a temporary misunderstanding, even though it compelled the Church for forty years to seek its true head

Martin V

Not aligned with the Pisan, Avignon or Roman popes, he was elected by the Council of Constance as the Pope to end the Great Schism.

Five Pillars of Islam

Declaration of faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage

Peace and Truce of God

The Peace and Truce of God was a medieval European movement of the Catholic Church that applied spiritual sanctions in order to limit the violence of private war in feudal society. The movement constituted the first organized attempt to control civil society in medieval Europe through non-violent means. It began with very limited provisions in 989 and survived in some form to the thirteenth century.

Mehmed II

also calle Mehmed the Conqueror, Murad's son, conquered Constaninople in 1453 and opened it to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds. The rebuilt city was renamed Instanbul.

The Fourth Crusade

Ends truce -- Crusaders attack Christian cities to attempt to gain allies and money...it fails and the Pope is furious kills Byzantine empire

Alfred the Great

king of Wessex

Fourth Lateran Council

forced jews to wear badges precided by innocent III; it was to discuss matters dealing with the capture of constantinople--he wanted to free the holy land; frederick II was declared holy roman emperor

german

moved to rome because of huns attack vandles north africa, burgunduans france, ostrogoths italy

The Calamitous 14th century essay

the weather it became colder witch lead to crop failers, over population in europe lead to mass famine in europe the bubonic plage comes in because of food famine week people could not live it wiped out tons of people, the Hundred Years' War, the Black Plague, the papal schism, pillaging mercenaries, and popular revolts, including the Jacquerie in France

Germainc Kingship essay

The Germanic king originally had three main functions: To serve as judge during the popular assemblies. To serve as a priest during the sacrifices. To serve as a military leader during wars. The office was received hereditarily, but a new king required the consent of the people before assuming the throne. All sons of the king had the right to claim the throne, which often led to co-rulership (diarchy) where two brothers were elected kings at the same time

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