Which of the following is a micronutrient (that is, a nutrient required in minute amounts), not a major nutrient?
Exclusive energy source for neurons
Serves as a precursor to hormones and maintains the fluidity of the plasma membrane
Used to build enzymes
Can function as coenzymes
An example is calcium
negative nitrogen balance
A person who is starving is likely to exhibit:
Fat-soluble vitamins can be toxic if consumed in large quantities.
Which of the following is an example of catabolism?
The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is _____.
The formation of glycogen to store glucose
The cleavage of glycogen to release glucose
The process of forming new glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules
The start phase of fatty acid breakdown
As proteins are broken down for energy______ is generated; the liver then converts this potentially toxic intermediate into______.
insulin serves as the regulatory hormone in what state?
glycogen is broken down to release glucose in what state?
______ is considered "good" cholesterol; high blood levels of this cholesterol are thought to be beneficial.
Which of the following is considered a long-term regulator of food intake?
The body's overall rate of energy output is called the basal metabolic rate.
eating a large meal
Which of the following would raise body temperature?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an antioxidant.
Conduction is the same as radiation heat loss.
Fermentation occurs when oxygen is NOT available.
In glycolysis, glucose is initially cleaved into three, two-carbon groups.
In order for amino acids to be converted into lipids, they must be deaminated.
Most required nutrients can be obtained by eating bread and meats.
Oxidative phosphorylation is coupled to chemiosmosis.
The role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to combine with carbon during the Krebs cycle.
When blood glucose levels fall, glucagon is released and causes glycogenesis.
Anabolism is a building process in which larger molecules are built from smaller ones, while catabolism is a tearing down process in which complex structures are degraded to simpler ones.
The Krebs cycle is the partial breakdown of pyruvic acid.
Before lipids can be metabolized, the fatty acids must undergo beta oxidation to be converted into two-carbon acetic acid fragments.
Gluconeogenesis occurs during cell respiration in the mitochondria.
The major function of HDL is to transport excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver.
Calcium is a mineral.
A major means for conserving heat is:
In glycolysis, glucose must be activated with the use of how many ATP molecules?
function as coenzymes in the body.
One function of vitamin A is to:
The hormone responsible for setting the basal metabolic rate is:
mitochondrial inner membrane (cristea)
The site of electron transport is the:
The thermoregulatory center is located in the:
Which coenzymes are reduced in both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?
Which element below is considered a trace mineral?
Which lipoprotein contains high levels of cholesterol?
an amino acid
A nutritionally incomplete protein lacks:
oxidative phosphorylation during electron transport
Most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration is produced by:
mobilize glucose reserves by glucogenolysis
A function of the liver during the post-absorptive state is to:
The hormone that controls essentially all events of the absorptive state is:
increase in fat cell alpha receptors
Which of the following factors makes it harder for an obese person to lose weight?
Which of the following is the amount of energy the body needs to maintain life?
Which of the following is a physiological response to hypothermia?
one kg of water one Celsius degree
A kilocalorie is the amount of energy needed to:
obtained from an outside source
Essential nutrients refer to nutrients that are:
loss of bone mass
Prolonged high protein intake can lead to:
Which of the following substances is considered a provitamin?
Which of the following fat-soluble vitamins is not stored in the body?
final product of glycolysis
two molecules of pyruvic acid, two molecules of NAD+, and a net gain of two ATP.
interfering with the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain.
During fasts lasting several weeks, blood glucose is maintained by:
high lipid content
A low-density lipoprotein would contain:
high density lipoproteins
The role of _____________ is to transport excessive cholesterol from peripheral tissue to the liver, where it is broken down and becomes part of bile.
The official medical measurement of obesity is the:
leptin, neuro peptide Y
___________ acts to suppress appetite by inhibiting _____, which is the most-powerful known appetite stimulant.
coenzymes accept hydrogen
Which of the following statements about a "redox" reaction is correct?