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Goals 1-5 + Supreme Court Cases

Mayflower Compact

First document to establish concept of self-government.

Jamestown

First successful English Colony in New World

To make money

Purpos of Jamestown settlement

Religious Freedom

Purpose of Plymouth and Mass Bay settlements

Puritans

Wanted to purify chuch

Separatists

Wanted to break away from church

John Winthrop

First governor of Mass Bay Colony; said "We shall be as a city upon a hill"

Georgia

Colony set up as a debtor's colony

Middle Colonies

Region of colonies known as Bread Colonies

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

First written constitution in colonies

Maryland Toleration Act

Document allowing religious freedom to all Christians, including Catholics

Virginia House of Burgesses

First representative assembly in colonies

Zenger Case

Colonial case establishing freedom of the press

Articles of Confederatoin

First government after Revolutionary War; did not create a strong central government

Salutary Neglect

Non-enforcement of trade regulations by England

Mercantilism

Exploitation of colonies for benefit of mother country; trade restrictions placed on colonies by Britain

Boston Massacre

Event involving colonists threatening British soldiers and the death of Crispus Attucks

Tea Act

Act leading to Boston Tea Party

Intolerable Acts

Acts passed as a result of the Boston Tea Party

Thomas Jefferson

Author of Declaration of Independence

Life, liberty, property

John Locke's natural rights

Social Contract

John Locke's belief that a man's natural states is free but a man chooses to form a government to protect his property

Common Sense

Pamphlet by Thomas Paine encouraging the colonies to declare independence

Northwest Ordinance

Law outlining steps for statehood for land around Ohio River Territory

Shay's Rebellion

Rebellion led by farmers in Mass who were angry about losing land from taxes

Virginia Plan

Said colonies should be represented in Congress according to population; led to Great Compromise

New Jersey Plan

Said colonies should be represented in Congress equally; led to Great Compromise

Great Compromise

Said that large states would be satisied by representation in the House and smaller states would be satisfied by representation in the Senate

Slaves should be counted as property

Northern viewpoint on representation

Slaves should be counted as people

Southern viewpoint on representation

3/5 Compromise

Said that slaves count as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of representation

Madison, Hamilton, John Jay

Author's of Federalist Papers to encourage ratification of the Consitution

Anti-federalists

Political party opposed to ratification of the Consitution

James Madison

Father of Consitution

Bill of Rights

Added to Consitution to satisfy Anti-federalists

Popular Sovereignty

Principle of Constitution meaning that people are the source of all governmental power

Federalism

Meaning one federal government and several state governments

Limited Government

Principle of Consitution meaning that the government is not all powerful and it can only do what the people allow it to do

Separation of Powers

Principle that the US Federal Government be divided between 3 branches

Checks and Balances

System in which branches limit each other from being too powerful; created by Montesquieu

Preamble

States purpose of Constitution

Article I

Consitutional Article of Legislative Branch

Article II

Consitutional Article of Executive Branch

Article III

Consitutional Article of Judicial Branch

Article IV

Full Faith and Credit Clause; Relations among States

Article V

Provisions for Amendments

Article VI

Supremacy Clause

Article VII

Ratification

Bill of Rights

Added to Consitution to please Anti-federlists; outlines rights in first 10 Amendments

Amendment 1

Freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and to petition (Amendment)

Amendment 2

Right to bear arms (Amendment)

Amendment 3

People do not have to quarter soldiers (Amendment)

Amendment 4

No unwarranted searches and seizures (Amendment)

Amendment 5

Rights to due process (Amendment)

Amendment 6

Right to trial by jury (Amendment)

Amendment 7

Right to settle disputes (Amendment)

Amendment 8

No excessive bail or cruel or unusual punishment (Amendment)

Amendment 9

Powers reserved to the people (Amendment)

Amendment 10

Powers reserved to the state governments Amendment)

Amendment 11

Places limits on suits against states (Amendment)

Amendment 12

Revises procedures for electing President and VP (Amendment)

Amendment 13

Abolishes Slavery (Amendment)

Amendment 14

Defines US citizenship; guarantess all citizens equal protection of the law (Amendment)

Amendment 15

Prohibits restictions on right to vote based on race or color (Amendment)

Amendment 16

Gives Congress the power to levy an income tax (Amendment)

Amendment 17

Enables voters to elect senators directly (Amendment)

Amendment 18

Prohibition (Amendment)

Amendment 19

Gives women right to vote (Amendment)

Amendment 20

Chages dates of congressional and presidential terms (Amendment)

Amendment 21

Repeals Prohibition (Amendment)

Amendment 22

Limits presidents to two terms in office (Amendment)

Amendment 23

Gives residents of DC right to vote (Amendment)

Amendment 24

Abolishes poll taxes (Amendment)

Amendment 25

Establishes procedures for succession to the presdency (Amendment)

Amendment 26

Set voting age at 18 years old (Amendment)

Amendment 27

Delays congressional pay raises until term following their passage (Amendment)

Supremacy Clause

Law stating that federal law is supreme to state law

Necessary and Proper Clause

aka Elastic Clause; Law stating that Congress is given the power to do all things necessary and proper to carry out their powers

Full Faith and Credit Clause

States must recognize laws, public records, and court decisions of other states (Law)

Establishment Clause

Law stating that a state cannot establish a religion

Free Exercise Clause

Law stating that citizens can practice whatever religion they want

Equal Protection Clause

aka 14th Amendment; Law stating that a state cannot discriminate against its citizens

Delegated Powers

Powers given to the federal government

Expressed Powers

Powers spelled out in Consitution; Delegated Power; Ex: Power to establish lower federal courts or power to declare war

Implied Powers

Powers given to the federal government by the Elastic Clause; DelegatedPower

Inherent Powers

Powers that the federal government is assumed to have because it is a sovereign state; Delegated Power

Reserved Powers

Powers that the US Consitution does not grant to the federal government but does not deny to the states; Ex: Establishing schools or conducting elections

Concurrent Powers

Powers that both National and State governments possess and exercise; Ex: Power to tax or power to establish lower courts

House of Representatives

Reps serve 2 year terms;must be 25 years old, a citizen for 7 years, and live in state he/she represents; has power to impeach President; money bills always begin here

Senate

People serve 6 year terms; must be 30 years old, a citizen for 9 years, and live in state he/she represents; carries out trial for impeachment; has power to filibuster

Pigeonholing

When a committee agrees to ignore a bill

Cloture

A vote that limits floor debate and ends filibuster

Joint Committee

Committee that has members of both houses

Speaker of the House

Leader of the House

Vice President

Leader of the Senate

President Pro-Tempore

Second in command of Senate

President

Serves 4 year term, must be 35 years old, a natural born citizen, and live in the US for at least 14 years; can only serve for 2 terms; roles are Chief Executive, Commander in Chief, Chief of State, Economic Leader, Chief of Party, Chief Legislator, Chief Diplomat, and Chief Citizen

Presidential Succession Act of 1974

Law stating that presidential vacancies are filled in the order of: VP, Speaker of House, President Pro Tempore, Secretary of State, Secretary of Treasury

Executive Agencies

IRS, ATF, FBI, DEA, OSHA, FDA, CDC, FAA, FEMA, Secret Service, CIA, FCC, EPA

Executive Departments

State, Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health and Human Resources, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, Education, Veteran Affiars, Homeland Security

War Powers Act of 1973

Law stating that a predisend must notify Congress in advance before sending troops to battle or declaring war

Executive Branch

Branch that can name nominees for the Court, veto legislation, grant pardons

Legislative Branch

Branch that can refuse nominations for Court, override vetos, impeach the president or judges

Judicial Branch

Branch that can deem laws or presidential actions unconsitutional

NC Executive Branch

Governor & Lieutenant Governor; has power of clemency

NC Legislative Branch

General Assembly; 120 members in House of Representatives, 50 members in Senate, leader of Senate is LT Governor

NC Judicial Branch

7 justices, 1 chief justice; 4 levels of courts: Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Superior Courts, District Courts

Statutes

Local law passed by legislature

Ordinance

Rule enacted by a local government

Charter

A city's basic laws

Political Spectrum

Left (Liberal)---------Moderate----------Right (Conservative)

Radical

Extreme Left

Reactionary

Extreme Right, opponent of porgress and change

Planks

Individual components of a political party's platform

Closed Primary

Election in which only declared members of a party are allowed to vote for that party's nominees

Open Primary

Election in which voters need not declare their preference to vote for a party's nominees

Nonpartisan

Free from party ties or bias

Incumbent

Politician who has already been elected to office

Caucus

Meeting of a political party to conduct party business

Political Action Committee

Political organization established by a corporation, labor union, or special interest group designed to support candidates by contributing money

Soft Money

Donations given to political parties and not designated for a particular candidate's election campaign

Recall Election

Special election where citizens can vote to remove a public official from office

Initiative

Voters of a state can propose a law by gathering signatures and having the proposition placed on the ballot

Referendum

Legislatures send issues to be voted directly by the people

Political Machine

Strong party organization that can control political appointments and deliver votes

Grassroots

Movement starting with the people

Citizenship, age, residency

Universal Voting Requirements (3)

Precinct

Geographic are containing a specific # of voters

Polling place

Location where voting is carried out

Exit Poll

Survey taken at polling places of how people voted

Gerrymandering

The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent

Electoral College

Officially elects the President and VP

15

Number of NC Electoral votes

270

Number of votes required to win presidency; if no candidate recieves this number, the House elects the President and the Senate elects the VP

Propaganda

Techniques include: Glittering Generalities, Name Calling, Bandwagon, Name Calling, Card-Stacking, Just Plain Folks, Celebrity Testimonials, Symbols/Transfer

Slander

False verbal statement that defames a person

Libel

Published words that falsely defame a person

Interest Groups

Members share certain views and work to shape public policy

Lobbying

Interest Groups pressure legislators in hopes that legislation would be passed

Negotiation

Discussing an issues between two or more parties with competing interests with an aim of coming to an agreement

Arbitration

Opposing sides consult with a third party and that party in turn provides a legally binding decision that solves the dispute

Mediation

A third party helps the disagreeing parties come to an agreement (This agreement is not legally binding)

US Supreme Court

Highest US Court; created by the US Consitution

US Court of Appeals

Created by Congress; this court was designed to relieve the US Supreme Court; there are 12 of these courts

US District Courts

Federal trial courts created by Congress; hears both civil and criminal cases that are federal crimes; there are 94 of these courts

Exclusive Jurisdiction

Power of federal courts alone to hear a case

Concurrent Jurisdiction

Federal and State courts share the power to hear cases

Original Jurisdiction

Power of a court to hear a case first

Appellate Jurisdiction

Authority to review decisions of inferior courts

See More

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