Medical Terminology Simplified (Chapter 9,10,11)

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127 terms

calc/o

calcium

gluc/o, glyc/o

sugar, sweetness

pancreat/o

pancreas

parathyroid/o

parathyroid glands

pituitar/o

pituitary glands

thym/o

thymus gland

thyr/o, thyroid/o

thyroid gland

toxic/o

poison

-dipsia

thirst

-trophy

development, nourishment

hyper-

excessive, above, normal

hypo-

under, below, deficient

neur/o

nerve

dwarf/

short or undersized person

gigant/

tall or oversized person

acr/o

extremity

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Adrenal cortex-promotes secretions of some hormones by adrenal cortex, especially cortisol

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Ovaries-in females, stimulates egg production; increases secretion of estrogen. Testes-in males, stimulates sperm production

Growth hormone (GH), or somatotropin

Bones, cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues-stimulates somatic growth; increases use of fats for energy

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Ovaries-in females, promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen and progesterone. Testes-in males, promotes secretion of testosterone

Prolactin

Breast-in conjunction with other hormones, promotes lactation

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Thyroid gland-stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Kidney-increases water reabsorption (water returns to the blood)

Oxytocin

Uterus-stimulates uterine contractions; initiates labor. Breast-promotes milk secretion from the mammary glands

Calcitonin

Regulates calcium levels in the blood in conjunction with parathyroid hormone. Secreted when calcium levels in the blood are high in order to maintain homeostasis

Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine

Increases energy production from all food types. Increases rate of protein synthesis

para-

located near, beside;beyond

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Bones-increases reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood. Kidneys-increases calcium absorption and phosphate excretion. Small intestine-increases absorption of calcium and phosphate

Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol)

Body cells-promote gluconeogenesis; regulate metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; and help depress inflamamatory and immune responses

Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldersterone)

Kidneys-increase blood levels of sodium and decrease blood levels of potassium in the kidneys

Sex hormones (any of the androgens, estrogens, or related steroid hormones) produced by the ovaries, testes, and adrenal cortices

In females, possibly responsible for female libido and source of estrogen after menopause (Otherwise, effects in adults are insignificant.)

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

Sympathetic nervous system target organs-hormone effects mimic sympathetic nervous system activation (sympathomimetic), increase metabolic rate and heart rate, and raise blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction

-lysis

separation, destruction, loosening

-gen, -genesis

forming, producing, origin

-emia

blood condition

Glucagon

Liver and blood-increases blood glucose level by accelerating conversion of glycogen into glucose in liver (glycogenolysis) and conversion of other nutrients into glucose in the liver (gluconeogenesis) and releasing glucose into blood; converts glycogen to glucose

Insulin

Tissue cells-lowers blood glucose level by accelerating glucose transport into cells; converts glucose to glycogen

cerebr/o

cerebrum

encephal/o

brain

gli/o

glue; neurological tissue

mening/o, meninigi/o

meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)

myel/o

bone marrow; spinal cord

-paresis

partial paralysis

-phasia

speech

-plegia

paralysis

syn-, sym-

together, joined with, beside

-drome

run, running

-ictal

seizure, attack

kal/i

potassium

natr/o

sodium

radic/o, radicul/o, rhiz/o

nerve root

crani/o

cranium

stern/o

sternum

cost/o

ribs

spondyl/o, vertebr/o

verterbrae

humer/o

humerous

lumb/o

lower back, loins

my/o

muscle

ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o

tendon

ankyl/o

stiff, bent, crooked

arthr/o

joint

cervic/o

neck

lamin/o

lamina (part of the vertebral arch)

myel/o

spinal cord, bone marrow

orth/o

straight

oste/o

bone

os (pl. ossa)

bone

-asthenia

weakness

-clasis, -clast, -clasia

break

-desis

binding, surgical fixation, fusion

-schisis

split, fissure

spin/o

spine

rachi/o

spine, vertebral column

metacarp/o

metacarpus, bones of the hand (meta = beyond, after, change; carpus = wrist)

kinesi/o

movement, motion

scoli/o

crooked, curved

petr/o

stone

sarc/o

flesh, connective tissue

lei/o

smooth

rhabd/o

rod-shaped, striated

dactyl/o

finger or toe

xiph/o

sword-shaped

Open, compound fracture

bone pierces the skin and causes extensive damage to surrounding blood vessels

Closed, simple fracture

bone is broken with no external wound present

Greenstick fracture

bone is partially bent and partially broken; found more commonly in children

Impacted fracture

broken ends of a bone segment are wedged into one another

Ankylosis

immobility of a joint

Carpal Tunnel syndrome

pain or numbness resulting from compression of the median nerve within
the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which flexor tendons and the median nerve pass).

Crepitation

grating sound made by movement of bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction.

Gout

hereditary metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis characterized by excessive uric acid
in the blood and around the joints.

Herniated Disk

herniation or rupture of the nucleus pulposis (center gelatinous material within an
intervertebral disk) between two vertebrae. Occurs most often in the lumbar region.

Kyphosis

increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic section of the vertebral column; hunchback or humpback

Lordosis

forward curvature of the lumbar spine; swayback

Muscular Dystrophy

group of hereditary diseases characterized by gradual atrophy and weakness of muscle tissue. There is no cure, and most individuals die before the age of 20 years. Duchenne's dystrophy is the most common form

Myasthenia Gravis

autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe muscular weakness and progressive fatigue.

Osteoporosis

decrease in bone density and an increase in porosity, causing bones to become brittle
and increasing the risk of fractures.

Sprain

trauma to a joint that causes injury to the surrounding ligament, accompanied by pain and disability.

Strain

trauma to a muscle from overuse or excessive forcible stretch

Torticollis

spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles causing stiffness and twisting of the neck that
may be congenial or acquired; wryneck.

blephar/o

eyelid

choroid/o

choroids, Provides blood supply for the entire eye.

corne/o, kerat/o

cornea, Permits light into the eye; transparent.

dacry/o

tear, lacrimal sac

irid/o

iris, Colored muscular layer that surrounds the pupil.

ocul/o, ophthalm/o

eye

retin/o

retina, Composed of nerve endings; responsible for the receptionand transmission of light impulses.

myring/o, tympan/o

tympanic membrane, Vibrates when struck with sound. aka ear drum.

salping/o

eustachian tube or fallopian tube
Equalizes air pressure in the middle ear with outside
atmosphere.

-opia

vision

amblyopia

dullness of vision: ambly - dull, opia - vision

nyctalopia

night blindness: nycto - night, darkness, alo - blind

emmetropia

normal, perfect vision

myopia

nearsightedness

hyperopia

farsightedness (presbyopia)

anisocoria

pronounced: an/eye/so/core/ē/a
aniso-unequal, cor/o-pupil, ia -condition

phac/o

combining form for lens (phacolysis treatment for
phacosclerosis)

xenophthalmia

inflamed eye condition caused by foreign material
xen/o - foreign, strange
don't confude with : xero - dry, and xantho - yellow

cry/o

cold

oculus dexter

right eye

oculus sinister

left eye

cor/o, core/o, pupill/o

pupil

phot/o

light

ton/o

tension, pressure

Anacusis

without/hearing; total deafness

Tinnitus

Ringing buzzing, or roaring sound in the ears.

Vertigo

sensation of moving around in space. A feeling of spinning or dizziness. Usually a result of
inner ear structure damage associated with balance and equilibrium. (Vestibular portion and semicircular canals).

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