Test one Meterology ch 3

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Daily Mean Temperature

The mean temperature for a day that is determined by averaging the hourly readings or, more commonly, by averaging the maximum and minimum temperatures for a day.

Daily Temperature Range

The difference between the maximum and minimum temperatures for a day

Monthly Mean Temperature

The mean temperature for a month that is determined by averaging the mean daily temperatures or, more commonly, by averaging the daily mean maximum and daily mean minimum temperatures for a month.

Annual Mean Temperature

An average of the 12 monthly means.

Annual Temperature Range

The difference between the warmest and coldest monthly means.

Isotherms

A line connecting points of equal air temperature.

Controls of Temperature

Those factors that cause variations in temperature from place to place, such as latitude and altitude.

Thermometer

An instrument for measuring temperature; in meteorology, generally used to measure the temperature of the air.

Urban Heat Island

Refers to the fact that temperatures within a city are generally higher than in surrounding rural areas.

Instrument Shelter

A boxlike wooden structure designed to protect weather instruments from direct sunshine and precipitation.

Degree

An arbitrary division on a temperature scale.

Fahrenheit Scale

A temperature scale devised by Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit in 1714 and used in the English system. For water at sea level, 32 degrees is designated the ice point and 212 degrees the steam point.

Ice Point

The temperature at which ice melts

Steam Point

The temperature at which water boils.

Celsius Scale

A temperature scale (at one time called the centigrade scale) devised by Anders Celsius in 1742 and used where the metric system is in use. For water at sea level, 0 degrees is designated the ice point and 100 degrees the steam point.

Kelvin Absolute Scale

A temperature scale (also called the absolute scale) used primarily for scientific purposes and having intervals equivalent to those on the Celsius scale but beginning at absolute zero.

Absolute Zero

A measure of apparent temperature that uses the effect of wind and temperature on the cooling rate of the human body. The windchill chart translates the cooling power of the atmosphere with the wind to a temperature under nearly calm conditions.

Heating degree-days

Each degree of temperature of the daily mean below 65 degrees F is counted as one heating degree-day. The amount of heat required to maintain a certain temperature in a building is proportional to the heating degree-days total.

Sensible Temperature

The sensation of temperature that the human body feels in contrast to the actual temperature of the environment as measured with a thermometer.

Windchill

A measure of apparent temperature that uses the effect of wind and temperature on the cooling rate of the human body. The windchill chart translates the cooling power of the atmosphere with the wind to a temperature under nearly calm conditions.

Besides latitude, what are the other five controls of temperature?

Differential heating of land and water
Ocean currents
Altitude
Geographic position
Cloud cover and albedo

What is the effect of daytime cloud cover?

It reduces the amount of incoming solar radiation and temperature will be lower than if the clouds were absent and the sky were clear

What is the effect of clouds at night?

They absorb outgoing Earth radiation and emit a portion of its toward the surface. Consequently, some of the heat that otherwise would have been lost remains near the ground.

Why are the largest annual ranges of temperatures normally observed over continents away from large bodies of water?

Away from large bodies of water, landmasses do not have the moderating effects of the heat absorbed and released by the water. Consequently, the range of temperatures is greatest in the middle of continents.

Why is the warmest time of the day usually in the afternoon, even though the Sun's rays are most direct at noon?

The air continues to receive a net absorption of energy until sometime in the late afternoon, so the temperature continues to rise after noon.

Why should thermometers be read in the shade?

It is impossible to measure air temperature accurately in direct sunlight because the thermometer absorbs radiant energy from the Sun in addition to energy from the air molecules.

Meteorologically, what temperature scale is used in the United States?

The Fahrenheit temperature scale is used in the United States.

On the Kelvin scale, what does the zero point - absolute zero - represent?

The zero point represents the temperature at which all molecular motion is presumed to cease.

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