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Biology 2012 Cranbrook Kingswood Mr. Gump Study Guide Chapters 30-32

Apical Meristem

at the tips of the stems, how plants grow in height

Collenchymas

a tissue that is composed of cells that are more specialized than those of parenchyma tissue (provide support for the plant and are grouped in strands)

Companion Cell

know what it does in the pressure-flow hypothesis

Cork

dead cells on the outside of trees (replace epidermis in woody plants)

Cork Cambium

lateral meristems responsible for secondary growth in roots and stems

Cuticle

a waterproof, waxy coating on the leaf

Dermal Tissue System

outside covering of plants

Dicots

two cotyledons, petals are in multiples of four/five, taproot, net venation

Epidermis

outermost layers of cells on a plant

Ground Tissue System

all three types of plant cells: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma

Intercalary Meristem

increases the length between nodes (i.e. grass)

Lateral Meristem

increases diameter of plant

Meristem

regions in plants where cells continuously divide (growing)

Monocots

have one cotyledon, petals are in multiples of 3, have fibrous root systems/parallel veins

Parenchyma

Photosynthesis, healing, storing nutrients

Primary Growth

vertical growth in plants (apical meristem)

Sclerenchyma

hard or woody cells that help support plant

Secondary Growth

horizontal growth in plants (lateral meristem)

Vascular Cambium

tissues that support substances

Vascular Tissue System

tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body

Adventitious Root

roots originate from stems branches and leaves

Cortex

between epidermis and vascular tissues (stems and roots)

Endodermis

the intermost layer of the cortex

Fibrous Root System

momocot (i.e. grass)

Macronutrients

large nutrient

Micronutrient

small nutrient

Pericycle

outermost part of the stele of plants (diagram)

Root Cap

protects roots underground

Root Hair

increase surface area for absorption

Taproot

dicots, single large root (ex. carrot)

Annual Ring

combo of spring (more water) and summer (less water) wood

Bark

protective waterproof coating of the tree

Bud

new growth

Bud Scale

added protection for the apical meristem

Cohesion-Tension Theory

what allows water to climb up a stem

Heartwood

dark center circle in the middle of a tree

Internode

distance from one node to another

Node

hold buds (which grow)

Pith

stores and transports nutrients

Pressure-Flow Hypothesis

active transport process of moving things through plants (page 612)

Sapwood

part of living wood where sap flows

Sink

site where sugars are actively transported into the phloem

Source

site where sugars are actively transported out of the phloem

Springwood

lighter color wood that shows more growth in the tree because it generally gets more water that time of the year

Summerwood

darker wood showing summer growth of the plant because it generally gets less water that time of the year hotter)

Translocation

movement of carbs throughout the plant

Transpiration

the process in which water leaves the leafs

Wood

main substance of trunks or branches

Blade

a type of plant leaf

Compound Leaf

a leaf with more than one leaflet

Guard Cell

protect meristem

Leaflet

branches off the plant

Mesophyll

photosynthetic layer part of the leaf

Net Venation

crazy veins in dicots

Palisade Mesophyll

site of most photosynthesis

Parallel

orderly veins in monocots

Venation

the order of veins in a plant

Petiole

stalk that attaches to the leaf blade

Simple Leaf

consists of only one leaf

Spongy Mesophyll

leaf tissue consisting of loosely arranged chloroplast-bearing cells

Tendril

leaf stem or petiole with a threadlike shape

Vein

to carry water or nutrients throughout a plant

Anther

site of pollen grain production (male)

Carpel

the female reproductive structures

Double Fertilization

pollen grain lands on stigma. Grain contains two nuclei: tube and generative. The grain germinates the stigma and the tube nuclei forms a pollen tube that moves down the style around the ovary to the ovule. Generative forms two haploid sperm cells. One sperm cell fuses with egg, making zygote, other fuses with two polar nuclei, making endosperm (nutrients for zygote/embryo, as it grows)

Embryo Sac

supplies nutrients to zygote

Filament

a stalk-like structure that supports an anther

Ovary

the enlarged base of a pistil

Petal

protection for plant, and attraction (angiosperms)

Pistil

one or more carpel fused together

Style

usually stalk-like structure that arises from the ovary

Cone

reproductive structure (hard scales), gymnosperm

Cotyledon

seed leaf in a plants embryo

Deciduous

trees that lose their leaves at the end of growing season

Ovary

female part of the flower where the egg is

Rhizome

underground stem found in most ferns

Seedling

young plant developed from embryo

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