The fundamental, physical, and functional unit of heredity; It is because a gene is a segment of DNA (on a specific site on a chromosome) that is responsible for the physical and inheritable characteristics or phenotype of an organism.
DNA to RNA
RNA to Protein; mRNA, tRNA, riboRNA together.
(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
An adjective used to describe two bases that always pair up together (e.g. A and T, C and G)
DNA vs RNA
RNA contains ribose instead of deoxyribose, RNA contains uracil instead of thymine like DNA, RNA is single-stranded rather than double-stranded like DNA, RNA is smaller than DNA
nucleotides covalently bond to form a sugar-phosphate linkage; have a 5' carbon and a 3' carbon
- DNA is made up of two antiparallel strands joined by H-bond
a nitrogenous base, a penose sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
Harddrive of any system.
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
an enzyme that pries the 2 strands of DNA apart and hooks together the RNA nucleotides as they base pair along the DNA template
the simplest of protein structures, the unique sequencing of amino acids
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain
enzyme that cuts sugar-phosphate bonds in the DNA backbone at specific points within particular nucleotide sequences in DNA
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
the template for protein synthesis
The most abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins froms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons; also called ribosomal RNA.
5' -> 3'
a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids
AUG- as well as the codon for the amino acid methionine (therefore all proteins start with the amino acid methionine.)
UAA, UAG, UGA
Optimal conditions of 37 degrees celsius divide fast every 20 minutes.
sequences of DNA that serve as instructions for making proteins
DNA Sequences not of importance.
Chemicals or radiation: used to create base pair substitutions or deletions. Technical details: expose mother to chemical/radiation-see what happens. Requires generating and screening a lot of organisms/phenotypes. Imperfect and random. Better techniques developed.
A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources.
simple; 1 chromosome; circular dna attached at both ends found in cytosol.
linear strands of DNA inside nucleus.