Nuclear cell divison. Phases in animal and plant cells include (in order): Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase. Functions: mitosis permits growth and repair. In both plants and animals, mitosis is required during development as a single cell develops into an individual. Cytokinesis is division of the cytoplasm that comes after mitosis or the after telophase.
Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate two important transitions in the eukaryotic cell cycle: entry into S-phase and entry into mitosis.
Cellular growth disorder that results from the mutation of the genes that regulate the cell cycle.
Protein complexes that develop on either side of the centromere during cell division.
Structures composed of a very long strand of DNA that has been tightly compacted.
A single chromosome that is part of a double chromosome.
Two identical chromatids.
The region where sister chromatids are constricted and attached to each other.
In sexually reproducing organisms, meiosis is the type of nuclear division that reduces the chromosome number from the diploid (2n) number to the haploid (n) number.
The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate normally during nuclear division.
The exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids of a bivalent during meiosis I.
The released oocyte, often call an ovum.
Reproductive cells, often the sperm and egg.
Any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
Any chromosome other than a sex (X or Y) chromosome. In humans, the chromosome pairs 1-22 are considered autosomes.
A chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, X and Y.
Male reproductive cells.
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main tissue of the liver.
Law of segregation
Mendelian law stating that two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis.
Law of independent assortment
Mendelian law stating that a random distribution of alleles occurs during the formation of gametes.
When one allele is not completly dominant over another.
When both alleles contribute to the phenotype.
When genes have more than two alleles.
Traits controlled by two or more alleles.
A gene that affects more than one characteristic of an individual. Ex: Sicke Cell disease
Occurs when a gene at one locus interferes with the expression of a gene at a different locus.
A genetic disease that results from a lack of enzyme hexosaminidase A (Hex A).
A neurological disorder that leads to progressive degenaration of brain cells, which in turns causes severe muscle spasms and personality disorders.
Inherited disorder in which red blood cells are shaped like sickles or half moons instead of biconcave discs. An abnormal hemoglobin molecule causes the defect.
Most common lethal genetic disorder amoung caucasians. Abnormal secretions related to the chloride ion channel characterize this disorder.
Generally caused by Trisomy 21. Also maybe mosiacisim or trans 14/21 or 15/21. Lower ears, small mouth, flexible, extra skin on neck, protruding tongue.
XXY. Nondisjunction of the sex chromosomes. Men only. Taller than average, less hair, develops breasts, osteoporosis, feminine fat distribution, testicular atrophy. Sterile.
Women only. Monosomy X-10. Nondisjunction of the sex chromosomes. Can NOT reproduce. Functions normally. Does not have a menstrual cycle. Short stature. Treated with hormone therapy.
Involve a change in a single DNA nucleotide and therefore a change in a specific codon.
Silent mutations are DNA mutations that do not result in a change to the amino acid sequence of a protein.
In genetics, a nonsense mutation is a point mutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon, or a nonsense codon in the transcribed mRNA, and in a truncated, incomplete, and usually nonfunctional protein product.
In genetics, a missense mutation (a type of nonsynonymous mutation) is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide is changed, resulting in a codon that codes for a different amino acid.
Duplication mutations result in the selective increase of genes within a localized region of a chromosome.
A type of gene mutation wherein the deletion (as well as addition) of (a number of) nucleotide(s) causes a shift in the reading frame of the codons in the mRNA, thus, may eventually lead to the alteration in the amino acid sequence at protein translation.
An enzyme that is needed to introduce foreign DNA into vector DNA.
Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule.
Double-ring nitrogenous base, found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine.
A nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil.
An enzyme that cleaves the chains of nucleotides in nucleic acids into smaller units.
Enzyme that unwinds and unzips the DNA helix during DNA replication.
An enzyme that adds nucleotides to telomeres, especially in cancer cells.
DNA segments made in the lagging strand.
DNA primase is an enzyme involved in the replication of DNA.
Primase catalyzes the synthesis of a short RNA (or DNA in some organisms ) segment called a primer complementary to a ssDNA template.
Single-stranded DNA-binding protein, or SSBP, binds to single-stranded regions of DNA to prevent premature annealing, to protect the single-stranded DNA from being digested by nucleases, and to remove secondary structure from the DNA to allow other enzymes to function effectively upon it.
The process of making mRNA from DNA in the nucleus.
The process of using tRNA and mRNA to put together amino acids at the ribosome.
Enzyme that makes mRNA from DNA during transcription.
snRNPs and proteins that cut out introns from mRNA and join the adjacent exons together to make mature mRNA.
Molecule that brings the instructions to make a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome.
Molecule that brings amino acids to the ribosome during translation.
Ribosomes are made of this molecule.
Pieces of mRNa that do not code for the protein. They stay in the nucleus.
Pieces of mRNA that do code for the protein. These are spliced together and go to the ribosome.
Alternative splicing (or differential splicing) is a process by which the exons of the RNA produced by transcription of a gene (a primary gene transcript or pre-mRNA) are reconnected in multiple ways during RNA splicing.
The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.
Male reproductive glands located outside the body cavity in a pouch called the scrotum.
Located at or near the tips of stems and roots, where they increase the length of these structures.
Major part of a plant that carries on photosynthesis, a process that requires water, CO2, and sunlight.
In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of the stem.
Have various adaptations and associations to enhance their ability to anchor a plant, absorb water and minerals, and store the products of photosynthesis.
A gametophyte is the haploid (n), multicellular phase of plants and algae that undergo alternation of generations, with each of its cells containing only a single set of chromosomes.
The sporophyte (2n) is named for its production of spores by meiosis.
Opening that allows carbon and oxygen to go through the plant as well as water; usually on the underside of a leaf.
Type of vascular (transport) tissue. Transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves.
Type of vascular (transport) tissue. Transports sucrose and other organic compounds, including hormones, usually from the leaves to the roots.
Pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Consists of anther and filament.
Female reproductive part of a flower.
Number of them can tell if its a monocot or dicot; attracts the pollinator.
A flowering plant's unit of reproduction, capable of developing into another such plant.
Male gametophytes in flowers.
Leaf-like green strucutre underneath the flower that proects the bud.
A developing mammal.
Double fertilization is a complex fertilization mechanism that has evolved in flowering plants (angiosperms). This process involves the joining of a female gametophyte with two male gametes (sperm).
The part of a seed that acts as a food store for the developing plant embryo, usually containing starch with protein and other nutrients.
In general, wind-pollinated flowers are green, small, and often lack petals. The anthers and stigmas generally hang outside the flowers to allow the wind to carry the pollen.
A duct through which sperm move from the epididymis to the ejaculation duct at the base of the penis.
The pouch that holds the testes.
As part of the male reproductive system, the prostate gland's primary function is to secrete a slightly alkaline fluid that forms part of the seminal fluid, a fluid that carries sperm.
The urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. In males, the urethra is the conduit for semen during sexual intercourse. It also serves as a passage for urine to flow.
The male organ that transfers sperm to the female and that carries urine out of the body.
A tube that through which eggs move from the ovary to the uterus.
In female mammals, the hollow muscular organ in which fertalized egg is embedded and in which the embryo and fetus develop.
The canal in the female that extends from the vuvla to the cervix and that recieves the penis during sexual intercourse.
The narrow opening of the human uterus.
A thin rubber sheath worn on a man's penis during sexual intercourse as a contraceptive and/or as protection against infection.
Keeps sperm from entering the uterus by blocking the cervix.
The intrauterine device (IUD) is a T-shaped piece of plastic about the size of a quarter that is placed inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
Hormonal birth control
Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system. Almost all methods are composed of steroid hormones.
(Embryo) Solid ball of 50 cells 4 days after fertilization.
A hollow ball of cells having a fluid-filled cavity called a blastocoel.
Most inner germ layer. Vertebrate adult structures include epithelial lining of digestive tract and respiratiory tract.
Most outer germ layer. Vertebrate adult structures include the nervous systerm; epidermis of skin and derivatives of the epidermis.
Middle germ layer. Vertebrate adult structures include musculoskeletal system; dermis of skin; cardiovascular system;urinary system.
Slow block to polyspermy
In mammals, in which fertilization occurs internally, fewer sperm reach the fertilization site in the oviduct. This may be the result of the female genital tract being adapted to minimize the number of sperm reaching the egg. Formation of the fertilization envelope causes the slow block to polyspermy.
Fast block to polyspermy
The eggs of sexually reproducing organisms are adapted to avoid this situation. The defenses are particularly well characterized in the sea urchin, which responds to the acceptance of one sperm by inhibiting the successful penetration of the egg by subsequent sperm. Similar defenses exist in other eukaryotes.
The process in which a gastrula develops from a blastula by the inward migration of cells. Gastrulation is not complete until three layers of cells that will develop into adult organs are produced.
In biological development a series of cell divisions that occur immediatley after and egg is fertalized. Cell division without growth.
Modern man and extinct ancestors of man. It is possible that an australopithecine (4MYA-1MYA) is a direct ancestor for humans. These hominids walked upright (bipedalism) and had a brain size of 370-515cc. In southern Africa, hominids classified as australopithecines include Australopithecus africanus, a gracile form, and A. robustus, a robust form. In eastern Africa, hominids classified as australopithecus include, A. afarensis (Lucy), a gracile form, and also robust forms. Many of the australopithecines coexisted, thus it is difficult to tell who is ancestral to whom.
Apes and humans. Hominoids consist of hominids, chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons.
New world monkeys, old world monkeys and hominoids.
A small arthropod animal that has six legs and generally one or two pairs of wings.
A crustacean with a broad carapace, stalked eyes, and five pairs of legs
Prosimians, monkeys, apes and humans
Hominid called Australopithecus afarensis, favored as being related more directly to early Homo.
To be a hominid, a fossil must have an anatomy suitable for standing erect and walking on two feet.
An opposable thumb can touch each of the other fingers. Old world monkeys, great apes and humans have it.
Mammals are air-breathing vertebrate animals characterized by the possession of endothermy, hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands functional in mothers with young.
A large phylum of animals that includes the vertebrates together with the sea squirts and lancelets.
Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
Anterior portion becomes the brain in most chordates. Basic characteristic that must be present at some time in an animals life for the animal to be considered a chordate.
Dorsal supporting rod. Basic characteristic that must be present at some time in an animals life for the animal to be considered a chordate.
Mammalia(mammals), Aves(birds), Reptilia(reptiles), Amphibia(amphibians), Osteichthyes(bony fishes), Chondrichtyes(cartilaginous fishes), Agnatha(jawless fishes)
A mollusk with a single spiral shell into which the whole body can be withdrawn.
Any of a number of bivalve mollusks with rough irregular shells.
Group of extinct omnivorous bipedal hominins. Includes A. anamensis, afarensis and africanus.
Classified into early homo and later homo.
In early homo: homo habilis, homo rudolfensis, homo ergaster, homo erectus; brain size greater than 600 cc, tool use and culture.
In later homo: homo heidelbergensis, homo neadertalensis, homo spaiens; brain size greater than 1,000 cc, tool use and culture.
Dates between 1.9-0.3 MYA. Found in Africa, Asia and Europe. Larger brain and flatter face than Homo habilis. Thought to have first appeared in Africa and then migrated into Asia and Europe.
Date back to 200,000 years ago. Massive brow ridges with protruding nose, jaws and teeth. Heavily muscled. Culturally advances;manufactured a variety of tools.
Ardi is the fossilized skeletal remains of a female Ardipithecus ramidus, an early human-like species 4.4 million years old. It is the most complete early hominid specimen, with most of the skull, teeth, pelvis, hands and feet.
The external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body.
Cartilaginous fish. Has a lateral line system, a series of pressure-sensitive cells that lie within canals along both sides of the body, which can sense pressure caused by a fish or other animal swimming nearby.
The amniotes are a group of tetrapod vertebrates (four-footed animals with backbones or spinal columns) that have a terrestrially adapted egg.
A gas-filled sac present in the body of many bony fishes, used to maintain and control buoyancy.
Sharks have this. System of pressure-sensitive cells that lie within canals along both sides of the body, which can sense pressure caused by a fish or other animal swimming nearby.
An organ of exchange between maternal blood and fetal blood.
Photosynthetic organisms that produce their own food.
Photosynthetic organisms known as consumers.
CO2 in the air enters a leaf through this opening.
Flattened sacs; specific site of photosynthesis
Flattened sacs in a stack.
Relative absorption vs. wavelengths. (pg. 118)
Rate of photosynthesis vs. wavelengths. (pg.118)
Water and CO2 diffuse into this, organelles that carry on photosynthesis.
Double membrane that has a fluid-filled interior.
The light reactions happen within the thylakoid membranes inside the chloroplasts.
The "dark" reactions do not occur only in the dark. It is the stage of photosynthesis that reduces carbon dioxide into sugar. These reactions are the Calvin Benson cycle, and they take place in the stroma (fliud portion) of the chloroplast.
Electron transport chain
Energized electrons move down this passageway.
Noncyclic electron pathway
Electron flow can be traced from water to a molecule of NADP+. This pathway uses photosystem I and II. Produces ATP and NADPH.
Consists of a pigment complex (molecules of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and the cartenoids) and electron acceptor molecules within the thylakoid membrane.
Cyclic electron pathway
Energized electrons leave photosystem I reaction-center chlorophyll a and are taken up by an electron acceptor, which passes them down an electron transport chain before they return to photosystem I. Only ATP is produced not NADPH.
NADP+ and H+ make NADPH
Consists of a pigment complex and an electron-acceptor molecule, is adjacent to NADP reductase, which reduces NADP+ to NADPH.
Consists of a pigment complex and an electron acceptor molecule, receives electrons from water and it splits, releasing oxygen.
ADP+P = ATP
Method of producing ATP
First step of the Calvin cycle. During this reaction, CO2 from the atmosphere is attached to RuBP, a five carbon molecule. The result is a six carbon molecule that splits into two 3 carbon molecules.
A protein that makes up 20-50% of the protein content in chloroplasts.
Majority of green plants such as azaleas, maples and tulips that carry on photosynthesis normally. C3 plants use the enzyme RuBP carboxylase to fix CO2 to RuBP in mesophyll cells.
In a C4 leaf, the bundle sheath cells, as well as the mesophyll cells, contain chloroplasts. C4 plants use the enzyme PEP carboxylase (PEPCase) to fix CO2 to PEP( a C3 molecule).The result is oxaloacetate, a C4 molecule.
CAM stands for crassulacean-acid metabolism; the Crassulaceae is a family of flowering succulent plants that live in warm, dry regions of the world. Include cacti and pineapple. Photosynthesis in a CAM plant is minimal because a limited amount of CO2 is fixed at night, but it does allow CAM plants to live under stressful conditions.