Chapter 3 1619-1700

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John Calvin

This religious leader from Geneva who believed in predestination and the "elect of God". Wrote "Institutes of the Christian religion". His beliefs would splinter into other countries, such as the Dutch Reformed Church, French Huguenots, and Scottish Presbyterians.

the "elect"

These people are destined for eternal bliss, according to God.

Protestant Reformation

Puritans were unhappy with the slow changes this movement was making in 1530's England

Calvinism

Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state. Dominated by Puritans.

Institutes of the Christian Religion

Written in Latin in 1536 by John Calvin, this book held the basic doctrine of Calvinism. Humans are weak, and only God is all-knowing/ powerful.

predestination

These belief held that certain people had already been chosen by God to go to hell.

"visible saints"

This group of people were also known as the "elect of God". Were a major part of the Puritan doctrine, as only these people could be granted church membership

conversion

A personal experience during which a person realizes/is recognized by God to be one of the elect. Following this epiphany, the "elect" were expected to live "sanctified lives" as one of the "visible saints"

Puritans

These people came primarily from the poor wool districts, and found Calvinism's simplicity to be particularly appealing. Felt only "visible saints" deserved church membership.

Separatists

Extremist Puritans who wished to break entirely from the Church of England, whose apathy towards "fraternizing" with the "damned" the Puritans found disgusting. Threatened to be kicked out by King James I. The Pilgrims were this.

Mayflower

The name of the ship by which the Pilgrims crossed the Atlantic.

Mayflower Compact

This written agreement between Pilgrim leaders stated that the settlers would form a simple government and submit to the will of the majority. Was signed by 41 males, but by no servants or the seamen.

William Bradford

This Pilgrim leader was an extremely well read man who was chosen governor thirty times. Feared independent, non Puritan settlers would spoil Plymouth.

William Laud

Douchebag archbishop that persecuted Puritans

Pilgrims

These Separatists fled England for Holland, then England, where they settled in Plymouth.

Massachusetts Bay Colony

In 1630, eleven boats carrying 1000 immigrants settled what would be the largest English settlement so far. These non-Separatist Puritans brought their royal charter with them, utilizing it as a sort of constitution. Claimed they did not wish to separate from the Church of England.

John Winthrop

..., As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony,_____
(1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.

Great Puritan Migration

The name for the exit of 75,000 Puritans from England because of persecution bewteen 1629 and 1640. 1400 went to the Massachusetts area, 9,500 to Chesapeake, and 18,600 to the Caribbeans.

John Cotton

Puritan educated at Cambridge University, emigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution by the Church of England. He defended the government's duty to enforce religious rules. He preached and prayed up to six hours in a single day.

Doctrine of a calling

A doctrine believed by John Winthrop and many Puritans instructing them to do God's work.

Anne Hutchinson

A Quaker who defiantly challenged Puritan orthodoxy. Preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639. Had **** ton of children. Predestination extremist. Moved to New York, after walking to R.I pregnant.

antinomianism

The belief that a "holy life" was not necessarily a sign of salvation, and the truly saved do not need to obey. the law of God or man. "Against the law"

franchise

a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote). In the Massachusetts Bay Colony, only 2/5 of then men could use this.

Protestant Ethic

Serious dedication to work and worldly pursuits, but not at the loss of simple pleasures.

Bible Commonwealth

A Christian theocratic political economy such as those of the Puritan of Massachusetts Bay and New Haven, Connecticut. There, laws intended for the common good were based on the Bible and the right to vote was limited to church members.

General Court

a Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor; this was the early form of Puritan democracy in the 1600's

freemen

Adult males that belonged to Puritan congregations, could vote for the governor, assistants, and the General Court. Only visible saints could be____

Roger Williams

This extreme Separatists challenged the authority of government regulating religious behavior, and was thus kicked out of Massachusetts Bay/ ran away with help from Native Americans to found Rhode Island. Became a haven for religious toleration.

covenant

(Bible) an agreement between God and his people in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return

Thomas Hooker

A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government. Followed the Fundamental Orders

Fundamental Orders

The constitution of the Connecticut River colony drawn up in 1639, it established a government controlled in democratic style by the "substantial" citizens.

King Philip

Also known as Wetacom, son to Massasoit, this man attacked English villages and frontier settlements with the help of an Indian alliance against the encroaching English in 1675. Eventually beheaded and paraded on a pike, his family enslaved.

New England Confederation

The Puritan club of the Massa. Bay+Plymouth and New Haven+settlements (Connecticut+Massachusetts). First milestone towards colonial unity. 1643. The purpose was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent intercolonial problems that effected all four colonies.

Dominion of New England

1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros. Humiliated the original colonies, and enforced the Navigation Laws.

Navigation Laws

Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America

Sir Edmund Andros

Head of the Dominion of New England in 1686, militaristic, disliked by the colonists because of his affiliation with the Church of Englan and restrictions on courts, schools, and revocation of all land titles. Taxed and changed many colonial laws and traditions without the consent of the representatives, tried to flee America after England's Glorious Revolution, but was caught and shipped to England

Glorious Revolution

A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.

Dutch West India Company

(1621-1794) Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Caribbean. Seemed to focus more on capturing Spanish treasure and establishing sugar outposts in Africa/Brazil.

Henry Hudson

An English explorer who explored for the Dutch. He claimed the Hudson River around present day New York and sailed against orders into the Delaware Bay area in 1609.

Peter Stuyvesant

A Dutch General; He led a small military expedition in 1664. He was known as "Father Wooden Leg". Lost the New Netherlands to the English. He was governor of New Netherlands

patroonship

A vast Dutch feudal estates fronting the Hudson River in early 1600s. They were granted to promoters who agreed to settle 50 people on them.

Quakers

English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania

William Penn

An English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. Inspired by Quaker belief from a young age. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.

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