method in which people make classifications
ease of learning attributes depends on how often the relevant attributes appear in the positive examples
continuous sequence that lacks discrete dimensions (i.e. colors)
how well a category member represents a particular category
Best way to identify a category is to specify the "center" of the category rather than its boundaries, can be the average or "ideal" of a category.
common attributes that are shared within a category
"natural" level of processing that we use in reasoning; it is neither too specific nor too general, usually represented by a single word ("chair") in language
Why do we categorize?
1. To reduce complexity of environment
2. Way we learn to identify things
3. Reduces need for constant learning
Problems in applying logic rules to real-world concept identification tasks
1. Real world categories do not have shared attributes
2. Dimensions are continuous, not discrete.
3. Hierarchy of categories exists
4. Not all members of a category are equal
when trying to identify an item, item closer to a given prototype is "more likely" to be this item, but at no point is there a boundary between "inside" the category and "outside" the category; merely a degree of "more likely" or "less likely"
some members of a given category are better fits for the prototype than others; some cats are "cattier" than others; for example, an orange tabby cat is "cattier" than a hairless cat.
Testing the prototype theory
Sentence verification, participants must decide whether sentence is T/F. Quicker responses for sentences involving familiar categories. We make judgments by comparing mentioned things to our prototype for category.
Temporal lobe damage
leads to bizarre categorization deficits; damage leads to problems with visual stimuli. Patients cannot categorize living things, as they are categorized by their visual features.
formal system of communication that involves combination of words and symbols that are written or spoken plus the rules that govern them.
capacity to create an endless series of new combinations all built from the same fundamental units
the message that one wants to convey
how to convey this message
spoken word does not have spaces where one may anticipate it to; instead, phonemes, the basic unit of sound, overlap.
1. Acoustic analysis
2. Auditory input lexicon
3. Cognitive system
1. Orthographic analysis
2. Orthographic input lexicon
3. Cognitive system
language deficit that results in an inability to produce language; LEFT FRONTAL DAMAGE
language deficit that results in inability to comprehend language; LEFT TEMPORAL DAMAGE
How does the brain recognize words?
1. Word shape (complete units)
2. Serial letter recognition (letter by letter, left to right)
3. Parallel letter recognition (letters within word recognized simultaneously)
"parsing," even in the absence of meaning grammar still seems to matter. we still pay attention to syntax in the absence of real meaning.
Garden Path model
We try to process the meaning of a sentence word by word before ambiguities may be resolved. As a result, we may be "led down the wrong garden path."
How do infants learn to discriminate spoken sounds?
Use subtle variation of sounds within words to distinguish where words end and new ones begin. Compare predicted and unpredicted sounds to learn when a word will begin. This is inherent to some degree.
"slips of the tongue," unintended deviations from a speech plan. Typically occur within but NOT across levels of a sentence hierarchy
exchange one word for another
"I wrote a mother to my letter."
exchanging two sound units
"slicely thinned bread"
exchange first consonants
"Reading in Lork Yibrary."
word could have more than 1 meaning
"cold" could be referring to the weather or a physical ailment
group of words creates the ambiguity, leads to two possible interpretations
ambiguity that could be resolved if the context/underlying meaning of the sentence were given.
error recovery heuristic
strategy for correcting comprehension errors stemming from ambiguity
going beyond the information given when trying to make a decision
Frequency/probability is a factor that goes into decision-making.
making a decision using knowledge that is readily available rather than examining other alternatives. Larger frequencies result in better and faster instances.
Ex: people who read about a lot of car accidents may judge their probability to be higher than it actually is.
Judging probability of an event based on how well it fits into a known category. Assuming that the probabilities will be similar.
Ex: someone with a laid back attitude and long hair may be presumed to be from California rather than England.
When a person judges the probability that an outcome will occur without considering prior knowledge of the probability that will occur.
Ex: if you know that 70% of people at a conference are psychologists, but you see someone dressed like an engineer, you will assume they are an engineer even though odds are not in their favor.
when making a decision, one wants to maximize the total value with minimal costs.
the desirability of an outcome; varies from person to person, as we place different values on different things
utility x likelihood of occurrence (factoring probability in)
the bodily arousal and sensations that result from anticipated events; our "gut feelings"
dual processing model of decision-making
2 distinct ways of thinking about encountered information:
System 1: fast, efficient, effortless, automatic; efficient, but leads to mistakes
System 2: slower, sequential, effortful, only applied deliberately; more likely to be correct
confusion about the source of a memory can give rise to false, vivid recollections (misinformation effect is the suggestion that alters memories after the fact)
positive framing highlights gains, whereas negative framing highlights losses. Contradictions arise in choosing one program over another, since BOTH outcomes are the same.
instability of values
the value that we place on things can change from person to person over time
Ex: weight, clean air, etc.
unrecoverable past expenditures shouldn't be taken into account when making a decision, as they are irrevocable; but many times, they are assessed.
urge to find reason to complete task even though you are going to do it anyways
rearrange parts to reach goal state
must figure out pattern among set of fixed relations and continue pattern to reach goal state
given goal state, must figure out steps taken to get there
Ex: tower of hanoi, rubix cube
tendency to seek out evidence to confirm a hypothesis rather than evidence to disprove it; those who seek out information to disprove theory are more likely to discover rule.
Intermediate states that one can use to reach a goal, may be depicted as "branches" on a "problem tree"
Tamping iron through medial prefrontal cortex, loses ability to regulate social behaviors as a result. Evidence that frontal lobe is key in inhibiting inappropriate behaviors.
lateral prefrontal cortex lesion
impairs short-term memory, as seen in the monkey well study
Wisconsin Card-Sorting Task
Set of cards that can be matched by color, design, and quantity. Subject is not told how to match cards, but is told whether a particular match is right or wrong. Subject is to figure out the rule, and once this occurs, a new rule is presented. Considered a measure of executive function, frontal lesion patients can't transition to new rule when presented. Can assess following frontal functions: strategic planning, organized searching.
prefrontal damage impairs...
1. Recency memory (shown objects: which was seen first?)
2. Source Memory (where did you see this?)
-Patients cannot filter irrelevant information
idea that frontal region has one function that ALL of these tasks require
heterogeneity of function
frontal region has different functions depending on the context
reward in the brain
represented by dopamine pathways that originate in VTA and end in NAcc
Set of physiological responses to a stimulus that has been learned to predict some type of reward.
learned to predict anticipated rewards; monitor environment and tell individual about reward opportunities. Evoke response that says: "whatever you just did, do it again." We thereby learn to anticipate/want the benefits of reward.
Light up NAcc with surge of electrochemical activity. Pattern of neural firing from dopamine surge is at a "high," drug addicts characterized by abnormal dopamine firing rates. Tricks brain into thinking it just received a massive reward.
ability to act in long-term best interest (contrasts reward, which wants immediate benefits)
Altering of behavior to achieve goals
(lose weight, quit drugs, control sex, etc).
children are not good at it, as self-regulation develops with age. Study was a good indicator of individual differences in self-regulation, however. Those who delayed longer were more socially and cognitively sound later in life.
self-regulation as a resource
limited resource, hard to partition effectively among multiple tasks
Ex: those quitting smoking gain weight, because they put most of their self-regulatory behaviors towards quitting, and then cannot regulate eating as well.
1. state of arousal (clinical)
2. mental experience (psychological)
No one area in the brain is pinpointed as the neural correlate for consciousness.
mental representations associated with physical properties in the world that combine to form 'consciousness.'
neurological condition in which stimulation of one sensory area leads to involuntary activation of a second sensory pathway.
Numbers may appear inherently colored.
Damage to V4 (color-sensitive area), "cortical color blindness," individual cannot perceive or imagine colors.
Damage to V5 (MT), "motion blindness," individual cannot perceive motion. World appears to be motionless.
brain usually combines two slightly divergent images into single, constant perception. If visual information doesn't match (house and face in this case), perception involuntarily alternates between both image without subject's control. Constantly changing perception. May give insight into how consciousness is implemented in the brain.
continuous flash suppression
testament that humans often do not see what is directly in front of them.
what don't we need consciousness for?
2. learning (trained orientations)
3. complex behaviors
damage to V1 (primary visual cortex); describe vision as "blind," but can act on information coming from "blind" visual field.
Can also recognize facial emotions without conscious sight.
We don't know how the physical interactions between neurons give rise to the experience of consciousness.