At 1000 years per half life; 2 half lives are ?
52% Radioactiity in a bone suggests that? how many half lives?
2 half lives
75% Radioactiity in a bone suggests that? how many half lives?
One half life
26% Radioactiity in a bone suggests that? how many half lives?
three half lives
two or more interdependent species, each adapting to changes in the other
organisms have some body parts used for the same purpose and can be similar in construction but not from common ancestor
Dolphins and shark look alike
the super continent but then split so all the animals plants
rapid diversification of most major animal groups during the Paleozoic period
"A" blood cell
Has B antibodies
"B" blood cell
has A antibodies
"O" blood cell
has A and B antibodies
"AB" blood cell
has no Antibodies
The universal receiver blood
The universal donor blood
If you donate A blood to a person with O blood
If you donate A blood to a person with AB blood
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
traits controlled by two or more genes
describes a characteristic that is influenced by many genes
inheritance controlled by a gene on the X chromosome
an extra chromosome 21
R- rough shaped bacteria- lived
did not kill mice
dead S and live R are injected into mice
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein; also called messenger RNA.
small piece of circular DNA that's easily transferred between bacteria
opposable thumbs, flatter faces, and very social
Fill in_______?? Homo erectus, Homo Neanderthal, and Homo sapien
where the skull is attached to the spine
stimulates the follicle to grow to a egg
stimulates the sperm to develop
Stimulates follicle development of ovaries and development of sperm cells
Luteinizing hormone, ovulation and egg release, maturation of egg, release of testosterone in males.
Day 14 peak
(from the hypothalamus) stimulates pituitary to release FSH and LH
Birth control pills
works by tricking your body into thinking it's pregnant so it does not release an egg
stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
at 7 weeks this X chromosome gene turns on to make gonads into ovaries
at 7 weeks this Y chromosome gene turns on to make gonads into testes
SRY makes into the vas deferens
GPbox makes these into oviducts
AUG (mRNA)-read chart
ACU (mRNA)-read chart
GAG (mRNA)-read chart
The origin of mutlicellular life
Big gulp or endosymbiotic theory
simple bacteria 3.5 billion years ago
Oxygen levels =20%
2.5 billion years ago
Age of mammals
60 million years ago
600million years ago
flip 2 coins- prob of all heads
flip 2 coins- prob of heads and tails
flip 3 coins- prob of all heads
Probabiltiy of 2 boys in 1 family
Probability of getting a girl
If Diploid cells have 8 chromosomes
eggs have 4 chromosomes
If an sperm has 10 chromosomes
the regular cell has 20 chromosomes
What is missing in DNA? deoxyribose + phosphate group +---------
What is missing in DNA? deoxyribose + Adenine + ---------
found in RNA
egg sticks to uterus wall
mutations that change an amino acid to a stop codon are considered
When a tetrad forms
The pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
Separation of tetrads in meiosis
2 daughter cells are formed, each daughter cell contains only one chromosome of the homologous pair.
chromosomes are single stranded, end up with 4 new cells, cells are Haploid (hybrid), genetically different, nucleus DOES reappear.
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
Earliest human ancestor found so far. Mosiac 4-5 mya
structure in the male reproductive system in which sperm fully mature and are stored
produces seminal fluid
found under the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra, makes fluid
tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body
tube through which semen is released from the body
tube that conveys sperm between the epididymis and the urethra
formation of the neural tube and the nervous system
process of cell migration by which a third layer of cells is formed within the cavity of a blastocyst
stage of early development in mammals that consists of a hollow ball of cells
Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function.
the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
the outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue
the middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue
feedback in opposite phase with (decreasing) the input
living in trees, the type of life primates are adapted for
process where related species that exist in different habitats will have parallel evolution and adapt to that environment
Alternative form that a gene may have for a trait.
a similar structure but are not inherited from a common ancestor ---> wings of bat, butterfly and bird
A structure that has the same function but a different construction and was not inherited from a common ancestor. Note bird wings are analogous to bat wings
AND rule probability:
MULTIPLY. If Heads and Tails (1/2 multiplied by ½)
Surface proteins produced by B lymphocytes that specifically react with foreign antigens.
Substances foreign to the body that cause immune responses; they can bind to antibodies or T cells; found in the serum.
is the alteration of genetic code by artificial means, and is therefore different from traditional selective breeding.
lived throughout eastern and northern Africa 3-3.9 mya
the 44 non sex chromosomes
is a small virus that infects bacteria.
The idea that mitchondria have their own DNA and are part of the endosymbiosis idea.
Early stage in the development of a fertilized egg, when the egg changes from a solid mass of cells (the morula) to a hollow ball of cells (the blastula), containing a fluid-filled cavity (the blastocoel).
Blended Trait =
When more than one trait is expressed at the same time (ex: red + white = pink)
4 kinds: Type A, Type B, Type AB and Type O; can be determined by the parents gametes (punnett squares)
The part of the brain that is important for the production of speech.
Chi Squared Test:
A test used to determine if results are random.
is used to compare observed/expected-Does your data support the hypothesis is the value less than the # in the table-if it is to the left- you have good data that supports your hypothesis. If is to the right, the data is random and does not support your experiment's hypothesis.
No dominant allele, but both alleles are expressed.
a sequence of 3 nucleotides that tell the genetic code that says when to add an amino acid
Complimentary pieces of DNA-
the strand that comes with one strand of DNA
either the X or Y,
Darwin's main points (5)
were Individuals vary, variation is inherited, more offspring are produced than can survive, mate choice is not random, and survival is not random.
The loss of a nucleotide. An example would be ATATGC change to AATGC. The first T was lost/ removed.
A cell that contains 2N number of chromsomes.
It is twice the number of haploid chromosomes
increases expression of extreme versions of traits in a population.
favors those at both ends of the distribution.
is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses. The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information.
The genetic material found in all living
Strong traits that are always expressed.
the gene that appears in the F1 generation. It's characteristics and features are stronger than the other gene.
a process of separating chunks of DNA in order to make a genetic "map" and to be able to compare it with other DNA.
the earliest form of development, from the first cell division to, until birth.
Hereditary changes in groups of living organisms over time.
In RNA processing, it is the coding sequence that remains in the final mRNA.
is the cessation of existence of a species. A typical species becomes extinct within 10 million years of its first appearance. Extinction allows for the survival of other species.
the first generation of offspring after the parent generation (first folial generation)
the second generation, the resulting offspring after the F1 generation has self-fertilized.
process by which haploid gametes combine, forming a diploid cell with 2n chromosomes, with n chromosomes from the female parent and n chromosome from the male parent.
a developing mammal. At this stage the mayor structures have forms, lasts until birth
an unborn or unhatched vertebrate especially after attaining the basic structural plan of its kind; a developing human from usually two months after conception to birth
Large opening where the spinal cord is. The position of the foramen magnum in primates and in the hominids provides evidence of evolution.
Preserved evidence of an organism, often found in sedimentary rock, that provides evidence of past life.
fossils are (3) used
to understand evolution because they show a change over time and we are able to map an animals progress. Fossils in layers tell us that over time there was a change, starting from older rocks to newer.
Frame shift mutation
This type of mutation is caused by Deletion and Insertion. When a nucleotide is added or removed, the order of the nucleotides shift causing the codons to change. For example: If ATATGC changed to AATGC, the codons would change from ATA/TGC, to AAT/GC...
Frame shift mutations
deletions or duplication/insertions ATATGC- becomes ATATATGTGTGC in a duplication insertion or ATATGC- becomes ATGC with a deletion
A haploid sex cell, formed during meiosis, that can combine with another haploid sex cell and produce a diploid fertilized egg.
An embryo at the stage following the blastula, consisting of a hollow, two-layered sac of ectoderm and endoderm surrounding an archenteron that communicates with the exterior through the blastopore.
Electrophoresis" refers to the electromotive force (EMF) that is used to move the molecules through the gel matrix. By placing the molecules in wells in the gel and applying an electric current, the molecules will move through the matrix at different rates, usually determined by mass, toward the positive anode if negatively charged or toward the negative cathode if positively charged
works through a series of multiple steps: Isolation of the genes of interest , Insertion of the genes into a transfer vector , Transformation of cells of organism to be modified Separation of the genetically modified organism (GMO) from those that have not been successfully modified
Is recombinant DNA technology- it is genetic modification .
Traits expressed in letters (ex: Aa or AABb)
strands of bacteria and found that one strand could be transformed . This experiment led him to the conclusion that DNA is the genetic material.
A cell with N number of chromosomes.
A set of chromosomes containing half of each pair. Sperm and egg are haploid cells contain 23 chromosomes.
does what? (unzip),
Hershy and Chase:
The Hershey-Chase experiment was a series of experiments, conducted in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase. It identified DNA to be the genetic material of all organisms. Before this experiment was conducted, it was suspected that proteins were the genetic material in viruses, not DNA.
two different alleles for one specific trait.
includes humans and several extinct species related to humans, diverged from common ancestor 5-8 MYA
possibly the first species of human-like mammals to appear2.2-1.6 mya
inhabited parts of europe and asia about lived from about 350,000 to 30,000 years ago
a similar structure inherited from a common ancestor
Anatomically similar structure that is inherited from a common ancestor.
two of the same allele for one specific trait.
If the DNA code isTTTAAA
a heterozygous phenotype is intermediate between those of two homozygous parents (offspring of a red flower and a white flower is 1:2:1 ratio 1=red 2=pink 1=white pink is intermediate offspring)
Genes on different chromosomes do not interact.
A mutation where a nucleotide is added to a sequence.
In RNA processing, it is the intervening coding sequence missing from the final Mrna
A karyotype is a micrograph that shows pairs of homologous chromosomes arranged in decreasing size (normal karyotype had 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosome).
was that of inheritance of acquired characteristics. The basis of his arguments was that not everyone is good at everything and if you don't use it, you use it. If you use something a lot, your children will inherit it. It was not very useful because his arguments didn't deal with the genetic component.
does what? (glue).
Believed that human population, if unchecked, would eventually outgrow its food supply, leading to a competitive struggle for existence. His idea's helped Darwin realize that it could be useful in natural world.
Meiosis changes what?
We go from diploid to haploid through meiosis.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
carries the genetic blueprint copied from the sequence of bases in a cell's DNA to the ribosome
Miller and Urey were
the first people to show that simple organic molecules could be made from inorganic compounds. They proved the primordial soup hypothesis
Mitochondrial DNA is only inherited from the mother which suggests that H. sapiens emerged from Africa 200,00 years ago from a hypothetical "Mitochondrial Eve."
mother of all humanity who lived in Africa 200 thousand years ago, theory supported by evidence from mitochondrial DNA
modern humans originated separately in Asia, Europe, and Africa
a permanent change occurs in cells DNA, altered amnio acid.
the process by which favorable heritable traits become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, and unfavorable heritable traits become less common
OR rule probability:
then ADD the probabilities (HT or TH)
Out of Africa hypothesis:
modern humans originated only in Africa and spread into Europe and Asia replacing the Homo species there
tube that transports an egg released from an ovary to the uterus
, the land continents started being formed together, but then split into respective continents taking plants and animals with them. This lead to the adaptive radiation we see in different species across the globe.
an observable characteristic that is expressed as a result of an allelic pair.
in mos mammals, the specialized organ that provides food and oxygen to the developing young and removes their waste
plasmid is an
an extra-chromosomal element, often a circular DNA.
point mutation is
when 1 nucleotide is changed-ATATGC-becomes ATTTGC
When a base in the sequence is exchanged with another. This is like substitution.
multiple alleles involved in one specific trait.
does what? (brings new),
a mammal with a highly developed brain, feet and hands, hair, live birth
The trait that is hidden during the F1 generation.
A trait that skips a generation, must have two homozygous recessive genes to be expressed.
traits that are sometimes expressed and sometimes hidden.
the process of copying a double-stranded DNA molecule to form two double-stranded molecules
isolated and can't find each other due to Geographical/Behaviors/Mating as well as weather cues
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
is found in the cell's ribosomes, the specialized structures that are the sites of protein synthesis).
is a nucleic acid made from a long chain of nucleotide units. is usually single stranded,
it contains ribose
50% new DNA 50% old DNA, this process is called
Semiconservative replicaiton MEANS
50% new DNA 50% old DNA, this process is called
some characteristics of primates
They have opposable digits, great toe or thumb, which are set apart from others. They have good vision including binocular vision. They also have the largest brains (humans have the largest of the all primates) the brain helps with communication which make primates more advanced than any other mammals.
Some examples of primates are:
Humans, apes, monkeys, and lemurs
operates to eliminate extreme expressions of a trait when average expression leads to higher fitness
Survival of the Fittest:
concept relating to competition for survival or predominance - the strongest survive and the weak die
The 4 bases of DNA
are adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine.
The 4 bases of RNA
are adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine.
The Cenozoic era--
The most recent era is the one in which mammals became the dominant land animals.
The plasmids have (3 parts)
An origin of replication , A selectable marker gene (e.g. resistance to ampicillin) A cloning site (a place to insert foreign DNAs)
They built a glass apparatus
to stimulate early earth condtitions and filled it with water and gases that they thought made up earth's early atmosphere.
the process of making a complementary copy of RNA from a DNA strand
mRNA is synthesized from the template DNA
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
found in the cytoplasm which carries amino acids to the ribosomes for incorporation into a protein.
An organism that has had the genes of another organism implanted into it.
Bacteria that have been genetically engineered.
Process in which mRNA attaches to the ribosome and a protein is assembled
A person with Turner syndrome is born with only one sex chromosome, this causes underdeveloped female characteristics (people with Turner syndrome are female).
features of ancestors that are rarely use and become smaller over time ---> whales- pelvic bon
A reduced form of functional structure that indicates a shared ancestry.
boiled and electric discharges were used to stimulate lightning as an enery source. Resulting mixture contained variety of organic compounds..
Homo Habilis nick name
Africa 2-300,000 years ago
H. sapiens emerged from a hypothetical "Mitochondrial Eve."
descent with modification
each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time
tendency toward perfect, unchanging species
this thoery claims that eukaryotes originated with one species living inside another's cells
pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change
episode of great species loss
principle of independent assortment
genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes
principle of segregation
When gametes form, each pair of factors will separate, with one half of the gametes getting one factor and one half of the gametes getting the other factor
Process in which chromosomal DNA is copied before mitosis or meiosis
The ribosome interpreting the RNA message into the exact sequence of amino acids and assembling them into a protein
the formation of an mRNA strand complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase (mRNA)
this allows animals to grasp an object in a powerful grip
stimulate uterine lining growth; development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics
Support sperm formation; development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
Mate at different times-leads to speciation
two organisms have different mating rituals that prevent them from interbreeding
carry blood away from the heart
a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart
large vessels (superior and inferior) that return deoxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart.
pumps blood from vena cava into right ventricle
pumps blood to the lungs
The left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
the chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
carries deoxygentated blood from the heart to the lungs
produces hormones, estrogen, and progesterone which prepares the uterine lining for receiving an embryo
empty follicle day 15-25
slow block to poly spermy
prevents more than one spermfrom fertilizes the same egg, lifts the membrane
fast block to polyspermy
prevents more than one sperm from fertilizes the same egg depolarization
anterior pituitary gland
MAKES and secretes Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH), , Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH), Luteinizing hormone(LH)
Mammal type that fully develops in uterus with umbilical cord
a warm-blooded vertebrate with hair or fur and females produce milk to feed their young
a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
A J-shaped, muscular pouch located in the abdomen, produces acid
organ that completes the chemical digestion of food and absorbs the nutrients
colon; organ that removes water from the undigested materials that pass through it
the lower part of the large intestine where feces are stored
organ that stores bile
behind the stomach It produces digestive enzymes like insulin and glucagon
windpipe; tube through which air moves
organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood
a genetic cross of an individual whose phenotype is dominant but whose genotype is unknown, with a homozygous recessive individual
the complete genetic material contained in an individual
combinations of alleles (or at the sequence level, mutations) that are found together in an individual
enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides