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what are waves of radiation that are characterized by electric and magnetic fields?

electromagnetic waves

7 electromagnetic waves (short to long)

1)gamma
2)x-ray
3)ultraviolet
4)visible
5)infrared
6)microwave
7)radio waves

the visible part of the spectrum is further subdivided by what?

color bands

7 visible forms of electromagnetic waves (long to short)

1)red
2)orange
3)yellow
4)green
5)blue
6)indigo
7)violet

2 units that energy is often quantified

1)Joules (J)
2)calories

which is larger b/w Joules and calories?

joules

what is the term for the amount of energy associated with an object's motion; energy of motion?

kinetic energy (KE)

any increase in an objects velocity results in a dramatic increase in what?

the object's KE

any doubling of the velocity will cause the KE to increase by a factor of what?

4 times

what is the term for the amount of energy stored in an object; stored energy?

potential energy (PE)

what is the formula for KE?

KE=1/2 mv²

what is the formula for PE?

PE=mgh

what can be used to produce an object's motion?

PE

what is the term for when energy is not lost but rather transferred back and forth between KE and PE?

law of conservation of energy

what is the term for anything that takes up space and has mass?

matter

mass is not the same as what?

weight

what is the quantity of matter an object has?

mass

what are substances that cannot be broken into simpler types of matter?

elements

what are positively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom?

protons

the number of protons in an atoms distinguishes what?

the atomic number of the element.

what are neutral subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom?

neutrons

what are negatively charged subatomic particles found in various energy levels (orbital shells)?

electrons

what is a dynamic event that alters the chemical makeup of an atom?

chemical reaction

what may cause imbalance in charge, resulting in either excessive protons or neutrons?

chemical reaction

what is an imbalance that produces a positively or negatively charged atom?

ion

what two main things contribute to an atoms mass?

1)protons
2)neutrons

what is the term for the total number of protons and neutrons found within a nucleus of an atom?

mass number

what is the average mass of all of the known isotopes of an element?

atomic mass

3 things that contribute to the atoms mass

1)protons
2)neutrons
3)electrons

what is the term that refer's to the positive or negative distribution within an atom?

charge

what are atoms with the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons?

isotopes.

what controls the rate of chemical reactions?

catalysts

what increases reaction rates?

promoters

what reduced reaction rates?

inhibitors

reaction rates depend on what?

the frequency of contact of reactants with catalysts

increasing reaction rates may be accomplished artificially by increasing what?

the substrate

how does catalysts increase reaction rates?

by lowering the activation energy

elements used to be arranged by what?

atomic mass

how are elements now arranged in the periodic table?

by atomic number

what its he arrangement of electrons within orbits around the nucleus?

orbital shells

the number of electrons increase from _____ to ____?

left to right

as the number of protons increase, what happens to the nuclear charge?

it increases

as protons and nuclear charge increase what happens to the atomic radii?

it decreases

moving down a group or column, what happens to the number of electrons and filled electron shells?

increases

as the number of electrons and filled electron shells increase moving down a column, what happens to the valence electrons?

remain the same

what are the electrons i the outermost shell of an atom?

valence electrons

what happens to the electrons as the number of filled energy shells increase?

electrons become farther away from the nucleus

what happens to the atomic radii as the electrons become farther away from the nucleus?

it increases.

what happens to ionization energy as the atomic radii increases moving down a group?

the energy decreases

what is the measure of an atom's attraction on electrons in a chemical bond?

electronegativity

the greater the electronegativity the greater the what?

the attraction for bonding electrons

what is the term from the chemical merging of atoms due to their electron arrangement?

chemical bonding

what are elements that donate highly conductive electrons to their environment?

metals

what is a protein that is soluble?

globular proteins

each amino acid sequence produces what kind of structure?

a 3-D structure

3 external factors that effect the activity of an enzyme?

1)temperature
2)pH
3)substrate concentration

what is the value that measure the H+ concentration within a solution?

pH

what is a molecular surface acted upon by an enzyme?

substrate

what are chemical reactions with a cell?

metabolic pathways

enzymes attaches to substrates molecules and convert the molecules into what?

products

flexibility of an enzyme allows its active site surface to do what when placed in contact with a substrate

reshape

what acts to lower the activation energy?

enzymes

what happens to the barrier between the products and the reactant when enzymes lower the active energy?

the barrier is lessened

when the barrier between products and reactant are lessened by an enzyme, it allows what to occur?

a greater reaction rate

what can compete with substrates by blocking its active sites?

inhibitors

enzymes can catalyzed what 2 reactions?

forward
reverse

CO2 + H2O <-->H2CO3<-->H+ + HCO3

what is used to measure the strength of acidic/basic solutions?

pH scale

what is a solution with a pH value less than 7?

acidic solutions

what is a solution with a pH value greater than 7?

basic solution

2 methods of chemical bonding

1)ionic
2)covalent

what is the electrical attraction between ions of opposite charged?

ionic

what is the sharing of electrons between atoms?

covalent

3 examples of hydrocarbons

1)methane
2)butane
3)propane

2 subdivision of hydrocarbons

1)saturated
2)unsaturated

saturated hydrocarbons are also known as what?

alkanes

saturated hydrocarbons are composed entirely of what kind of bonds?

single bonds

saturated hydrocarbon's carbons are fully connected with what element?

hydrogen

what is the general formula for saturated hydrocarbons?

CnH2n+2

what are the basis of petroleum fuels?

saturated hydrocarbons

how many bonds are in unsaturated hydrocarbons?

one or more double or triple bonds b/w carbon atoms

what are unsaturated hydrocarbons with 1 double bond?

alkenes

what is the general formula of alkenes?

CnH2n

what are unsaturated hydrocarbons with triple bonds?

alkynes

what is the generals formula of alkynes?

CnH2n-2

metals are to the ____ of the zig zag line of the periodic table?

left

nonmetals are to the _____ of the zig zag line of the periodic table

right

what is in contact with the zig zag line?

metalloids

what are elements that may accept or donate electrons and possess a mixture of metallic and nonmetallic properties?

metalloids

what tends to be a cation?

metals

what tends to be an anion?

nonmetallic properties

what kind of bonds complete on another by donation and acceptance of electrons?

ionic bonds

what kind of bond share electrons between atoms?

covalent bond

what electrons are shared in covalent bonds?

valence electrons

covalent bonding is greatest between atoms what share similar what?

electronegativites; or similar attractions for electrons.

electronegativity tends to increase from ___ to right___ on the periodic table?

left to right

covalent bonding results between atoms on what side of the table?

same side of the table

what is a visual representation for covalent bonding b/w atoms of a molecule?

lewis structures.

reactions must be balanced according to what 2 things?

1)atomic number
2)charge

what is the goal of balancing an equation?

to make certain that there are equal numbers of each atom on the reactant side and the product side

subscripts of an element represent what?

the number of atoms of that element

oxidation involves what?

donating electrons

reduction involves what?

accepting electrons

3 examples of oxidation-reduction reactions

1)photosynthesis
2)combustion
3)metabolism

what refers to the chemical reactions in living organisms that are necessary to maintain life?

metabolism

acid+ + base- -->____ +_____

salt + water

water is considered what?

polar molecule

what is a molecule that posses both positive and negative atomic structure?

polar molecule

what is the term that can chemically split the liquid water molecule into gaseous components?

electrolysis

what serves as a pH standard?

pure water

pure water that serves as a pH standard is central to what 2 things?

1)acid-base neutrality
2) enzyme function

pure water has a low what?

electrical conductivity

what is the maximum density of water?

4℃

what is the ratio of mass/volume?

density

what is the melting point of ice?

0℃

what is the boiling point of liquid water?

100℃

the boiling point of water depends on what?

pressure

what is alternatively used to express temperature?

Kelvin (K)

what is a metric temperature scaled defined by an absolute zero reference point?

Kelvin (K)

0K=____?

-273℃

what is the term for the temperature and pressure at which water will coexists as a solid, liquid, and gas?

triple-point of water

Kelvin temperatures are standardized by what?

the triple-point of water

what is the energy required to raise one unit of mass by a substance by 1℃?

Specific heat

water possess the ____ highest specific heat?

second

large specific heat of water enables it to undergo what?

minor temperature changes compared to the environment

water also has a high heat of what?

vaporization

what is the amount of heat necessary to cause a phase transition b/w a liquid and gas?

heat of vaporization

water acts as the universal what?

solvent

what theory states that atoms (or molecules) are always in constant motion?

kinetic theory

what state is considered to have a fixed shape and volume?

solid state

what is the term in which the atoms are arranged in a highly ordered state, to state in which the atoms lack true order?

solid state

solids are often considered to exist at high ___ and low ___?

pressures;temperatures

liquid states have a ____ volume and changing ____?

fixed; shape

what is the term for the physical connection b/w atoms that does not alter the chemical nature of the atoms?

physical bonding

liquids will spread out over a ____ volume?

greater

gaseous states have a changing ____ and ____

volume; shape

what is the term that is related to the energy needed to cause phase transition at fixed temperature?

latent heat

more energy is needed to transition from a ____ to ___?

liquid; gas (opposed to liquid to solid)

transitions b/w solid, liquid, and gas phases are achieved by how?

adding or subtracting energy from the system

what is the flow of energy due to the difference in temperature?

heat

the liquid to gas transition is through what 2 things?

1)vaporization
2)evaporization

liquid to gas transition requires the addition of what?

heat

the gas to liquid transition is achieved by what?

condensation

gas to liquid requires what?

a subtraction of heat

evaporation of a liquid is achieved by what 3 things?

1)high heat
2)low humidity
3)fast movement of the surrounding air mass

evaporization occurs by the physical collision at the surface of what?

surface layer of a liquid

the physical collision at the surface layer of the a liquid acts to remove what?

the faster-moving liquid molecules

vaporization occurs through the phase transition from ____ to ___?

liquid to gas

what is the alternation of the physical state b/w liquid, solid, gas?

phase transition

transition from a liquid to a gas takes place by breaking what?

the physical bond within the liquid.

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