tigris and euphrates
The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Turkey through Iraq.
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture
The people who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of the third millennium B.C.E. They were responsible for the creation of many fundamental elements of Mesopotamian culture-such as irrigation technology, cuneiform, and religious conceptions.
Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets
epic of gilgamesh
an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction.
a tiered, pyramid-shaped structure that formed part of a sumerian temple
King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world's oldest codes of law.
A legal code developed by King Hammurabi of Mesopotamia. The code was influential in the establishment of Hebrew and Islamic law and in the U.S. judiciary system. It specified crimes and punishments to help judges impose penalties. Eye for an eye.
An ancient Mesopotamian empire that extended throughout the Fertile Crescent in the 1700s B.C.
known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to centeral Egypt; used ladders, weapons like iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire
Hittites/Assyrians/Chaldeans: also known as chaldeans; descended from humans in 1700 BC of Hammurabi's Babylonian Empire. overthrown by nebechunezzar (neo-babylonians)
Sumerian invention that allowed a better way to transport goods
A system of people in different lands who trade goods back and forth
relating to a society in which men hold the greatest legal and moral authority
role of women
at first watching children while men go out, then gathering, then helping farming and tending livestock. in sumerian society, more freedom than they have today
cloth worn over hair or head to conceal
Early group of people who lived in lands between Mesopotamia and Egypt. They developed the religion Judaism.
Region in southwestern Asia that became the ancient home of the jews; the ancient Roman name for Judea;
the dispersion or spreading of something that was originally localized (as a people or language or culture) such as the Jewish Diaspora
belief in a single God
Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the first millennium B.C.E. From major cities such as Tyre and Sidon, Phoenician merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, and engaged in widespread commerce. (103)
a set of symbols that represent the sounds of a language
group of seminomadic people who, about 1700 B.C., began to migrate from what is now southern Russia to the Indian subcontinent, Europe, & Southwest Asia
spoken by about half of the world's peoples; a family of languages comprising most of European languages and parts of South Asia
Animal introduced by Europeans that transformed the Indian way of life on the Great Plains, signature animal Indo-Europeans brought with them
People who were among the first to master ironworking, meaning they could make the strongest weapons of the time. They also used the chariot, a wheeled, horse-drawn cart used in battle which allowed soldiers to move quickly around a battlefield and fire arrows at their enemy.
Extraction of iron from its ores. allowed for cheaper stronger production of weapons and tools. More abundant than tin and copper
The Hitties improved the heavy Summerian chariot. They created a lighter chariot that was more maneuverable and speedy by using wheels with spokes in 200 BCE.