Science- Populations and Communities

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Habitat

an organism's environment

Biotic Factors

parts of the habitat that are living

Abiotic Factors

parts of the habitat that are non-living

Species

a group of organisms that can mate with each other and produce fertile offspring

Population

all the members of one species living in a particular area

Communities

all the different populations that live together in an area

Ecosystem

the community of organisms that live in a particular area along with their nonliving environment

Ecology

the study of how organisms interact with each other and with their environment

Birth rate

the number of births per 1,000 individuals

Death Rate

the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals

Immigration

when individuals move into a population

Emigration

when individuals move out of a population

Population density

the number of individuals in an area of specific size

Limiting factor

an environmental factor that causes a population to stop growing or decrease in size

Carrying capacity

largest population that an area can support

Natural selection

Individuals whose unique characteristics are well suited for an environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. Those unique characteristics are called adaptations.

Niche

the role of an organism in its habitat

Competition

the struggle between organism to survive as they attempt to use the same limited resources

Predation

when an organism kills another one for food or nutrients

Predator

the organism that does the killing

Prey

the animal that is killed

Symbiosis

any relationship in which two species live closely together and at least one of the species benefits

Mutualism

a relationship where both species benefit

Commensalism

a relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither helped nor harmed

Parasitism

a relationship that involves one organism living with, on, or inside another organism and harming it

Primary succession

the series of changes that occurs in an area where no soil or organisms exist

Pioneer species

the first species to populate an area

Secondary succession

the series of changes that occurs in an area where the ecosystem has been disturbed, but where soil and organisms still exist

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