# Physics Key terms

### 100 terms by kdespain2015

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Hewitt textbook

### acceleration

the rate at which velocity changes

### average speed

total distance covered divided by time interval

### elapsed time

time that has passed since the beginning of a fall

### free fall

when gravity is the only force on a falling object

### instantaneous speed

the speed at any instant

### rate

a quantity divided by time

### relative

everything is _____ to something when discussing speed

### speed

how fast something is moving

### velocity

speed and direction

### equilibrium

when an object is at rest and the net force is zero

a push or pull

### friction

force that acts between two materials that touch as they move past each other

laziness

### kilogram

the unit of measurement of mass

### law of inertia

every object continues in a state of rest, or of motion in a straight line at a constant speed, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces acting on it

### mass

the quantity of matter in an object

### net force

the combination of all forces acting on an object

### newton

the unit of force

### Newton's first law

the law of inertia

### normal force

the force that balances the force of gravity to keep an object still

aka normal force

### weight

the force of gravity on an object

### air resistance

the friction acting on something moving through air

### fluid

friction in liquids or gasses

### free-body diagram

a diagram showing all the forces acting on the object

### inversely

two values change in opposite directions

### Newton's second law

The acceleration produced by the net force on an object is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object (a= F/m)

### terminal speed

when the air resistance on an object equals the weight of that object

### terminal velocity

when the air resistance on an object equals the weight of that object in terms of direction

### action force

one force that acts on a object

### interaction

a force is part of an...

### Newton's third law

whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object

### reaction force

anther force that acts on an object

### conserved

when a quantity in physic does not change, specifically momentum

### elastic collision

(bouncy) when objects collide and bounce away from each other

### impulse

change in momentum force times time interval

### inelastic collision

(sticky) when colliding objects become tangled or coupled together

### law of conservation of momentum

in the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains the same

### momentum

mass times velocity, or inertia in motion

### efficiency

useful work output over total work input, AMA over TMA

### energy

the ability to do work

### fulcrum

the pivot point of the lever

### joule

the unit of measurement of work

### kinetic energy

the energy due to the movement of something

### law of conservation of energy

energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be transformed from on form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes

### lever

a simple machine that gives a mechanical advantage when given a fulcrum

### machine

a device that changes the direction of or amplifies forces

the ratio of output force to input force

### mechanical energy

the energy due to the position or movement of something

### potential energy

the energy due to the position of something

### power

work done divided by the time interval, the rate at which work is done, change in energy

### pulley

a kind of lever that changes the direction of a force

### watt

joule per second, unit of measurement of power

### work

force times distance, the application of a force and the movement done by that force

### work-energy theorem

The work done on an object equals the change in kinetic energy of the object

### law of universal gravitation

Newton's law that states that all objects in the universe attract each other by the force of gravity

### universal gravitational constant, G

the constant G in the equation for Newton's law of universal gravitation; measures the strength of gravity

### charge

fundamental electrical property explaining the mutual attractions or repulsions between electrons or protons.

### conductor

a material that easily moves electrons

### conservation of charge

the law that states that charges are neither created nor destroyed but only transferred from one material to another

### coulomb

the unit of measurement of charge

### Coulomb's law

F=kq1q2/dsquared, The force between two charges particles is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

### electrical force

a force that one charge exerts on another

### electrically polarized

when one side of an atom or molecule is induced to be slightly more positive or negative

### electrostatics

electricity at rest

### induced

when charge is redistributed on an object because of the presence of a charged object nearby.

### induction

the process of moving charge without direct physical contact

### insulator

a material that does not easily move electrons

### semiconductor

materials that can sometimes behave as conductors or insulators

### superconductor

materials that can attain infinite conductivity

### electric field

the space around every electrical charge

### electric potential

electric potential energy per charge

### electrical potential energy

energy charge posses by its location

### volt

the unit of measurement of voltage/ electric potential

### voltage

electric potential

### alternating current

electrons in the circuit that first flow in one direction nd then the other

### ampere

the unit of measurement of current

### direct current

an electric current that flows in one direction steadily

### electric current

the floe of electric charge

### electric power

the rate at which electrical energy is converted to into another form such as, mechanical energy, heat, or light

### electric resistance

the resistance that the current offers to the flow of charge

### ohm

the unit of electric resistance

### Ohm's law

current is equal to voltage divided by resistance

### potential difference

the difference in potential (voltage) so that charge can flow

### voltage source

something that provides a potential difference

### circuit

an electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow

### in parallel

when electrical devices are connected to form branches with multiple paths for the electrons to flow

### in series

when electrical devices are connected in a single pathway with one path for the electrons to flow

### parallel circuit

circuit in which electric current can follow more than one path

### series circuit

circuit in which electric current follows only one path

### electromagnet

a current-carrying coil of wire with many loops

### magnetic domain

clusters of aligned atoms that magnetize irons

### magnetic field

the space around a magnet, in which a magnetic force is exerted

### magnetic pole

the ends of a magnet where the magnetism is concentrated, they produce magnetic forces (like forces repel, and opposite forces attract)

### electromagnetic induction

The phenomenon of inducing voltage voltage by changing the magnetic field around a conductor

The induced voltage in a coil is proportional to the product of the number of loops and the rate at which the magnetic field changes within those loops.

### generator

a device that converts mechanical energy into electric energy

### transformer

a device that increases or decreases the voltage of alternating current

### motor

a device that converts electric energy into mechanical energy

### galvanometer

a sensitive current-indicating instrument

Example: