Physics Key terms

100 terms by kdespain2015 

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Hewitt textbook

acceleration

the rate at which velocity changes

average speed

total distance covered divided by time interval

elapsed time

time that has passed since the beginning of a fall

free fall

when gravity is the only force on a falling object

instantaneous speed

the speed at any instant

rate

a quantity divided by time

relative

everything is _____ to something when discussing speed

speed

how fast something is moving

velocity

speed and direction

equilibrium

when an object is at rest and the net force is zero

force

a push or pull

friction

force that acts between two materials that touch as they move past each other

inertia

laziness

kilogram

the unit of measurement of mass

law of inertia

every object continues in a state of rest, or of motion in a straight line at a constant speed, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces acting on it

mass

the quantity of matter in an object

net force

the combination of all forces acting on an object

newton

the unit of force

Newton's first law

the law of inertia

normal force

the force that balances the force of gravity to keep an object still

support force

aka normal force

weight

the force of gravity on an object

air resistance

the friction acting on something moving through air

fluid

friction in liquids or gasses

free-body diagram

a diagram showing all the forces acting on the object

inversely

two values change in opposite directions

Newton's second law

The acceleration produced by the net force on an object is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object (a= F/m)

terminal speed

when the air resistance on an object equals the weight of that object

terminal velocity

when the air resistance on an object equals the weight of that object in terms of direction

action force

one force that acts on a object

interaction

a force is part of an...

Newton's third law

whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object

reaction force

anther force that acts on an object

conserved

when a quantity in physic does not change, specifically momentum

elastic collision

(bouncy) when objects collide and bounce away from each other

impulse

change in momentum force times time interval

inelastic collision

(sticky) when colliding objects become tangled or coupled together

law of conservation of momentum

in the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains the same

momentum

mass times velocity, or inertia in motion

efficiency

useful work output over total work input, AMA over TMA

energy

the ability to do work

fulcrum

the pivot point of the lever

joule

the unit of measurement of work

kinetic energy

the energy due to the movement of something

law of conservation of energy

energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be transformed from on form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes

lever

a simple machine that gives a mechanical advantage when given a fulcrum

machine

a device that changes the direction of or amplifies forces

mechanical advantage

the ratio of output force to input force

mechanical energy

the energy due to the position or movement of something

potential energy

the energy due to the position of something

power

work done divided by the time interval, the rate at which work is done, change in energy

pulley

a kind of lever that changes the direction of a force

watt

joule per second, unit of measurement of power

work

force times distance, the application of a force and the movement done by that force

work-energy theorem

The work done on an object equals the change in kinetic energy of the object

law of universal gravitation

Newton's law that states that all objects in the universe attract each other by the force of gravity

universal gravitational constant, G

the constant G in the equation for Newton's law of universal gravitation; measures the strength of gravity

charge

fundamental electrical property explaining the mutual attractions or repulsions between electrons or protons.

conductor

a material that easily moves electrons

conservation of charge

the law that states that charges are neither created nor destroyed but only transferred from one material to another

coulomb

the unit of measurement of charge

Coulomb's law

F=kq1q2/dsquared, The force between two charges particles is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

electrical force

a force that one charge exerts on another

electrically polarized

when one side of an atom or molecule is induced to be slightly more positive or negative

electrostatics

electricity at rest

induced

when charge is redistributed on an object because of the presence of a charged object nearby.

induction

the process of moving charge without direct physical contact

insulator

a material that does not easily move electrons

semiconductor

materials that can sometimes behave as conductors or insulators

superconductor

materials that can attain infinite conductivity

electric field

the space around every electrical charge

electric potential

electric potential energy per charge

electrical potential energy

energy charge posses by its location

volt

the unit of measurement of voltage/ electric potential

voltage

electric potential

alternating current

electrons in the circuit that first flow in one direction nd then the other

ampere

the unit of measurement of current

direct current

an electric current that flows in one direction steadily

electric current

the floe of electric charge

electric power

the rate at which electrical energy is converted to into another form such as, mechanical energy, heat, or light

electric resistance

the resistance that the current offers to the flow of charge

ohm

the unit of electric resistance

Ohm's law

current is equal to voltage divided by resistance

potential difference

the difference in potential (voltage) so that charge can flow

voltage source

something that provides a potential difference

circuit

an electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow

in parallel

when electrical devices are connected to form branches with multiple paths for the electrons to flow

in series

when electrical devices are connected in a single pathway with one path for the electrons to flow

parallel circuit

circuit in which electric current can follow more than one path

series circuit

circuit in which electric current follows only one path

electromagnet

a current-carrying coil of wire with many loops

magnetic domain

clusters of aligned atoms that magnetize irons

magnetic field

the space around a magnet, in which a magnetic force is exerted

magnetic pole

the ends of a magnet where the magnetism is concentrated, they produce magnetic forces (like forces repel, and opposite forces attract)

electromagnetic induction

The phenomenon of inducing voltage voltage by changing the magnetic field around a conductor

Faraday's law

The induced voltage in a coil is proportional to the product of the number of loops and the rate at which the magnetic field changes within those loops.

generator

a device that converts mechanical energy into electric energy

transformer

a device that increases or decreases the voltage of alternating current

motor

a device that converts electric energy into mechanical energy

galvanometer

a sensitive current-indicating instrument

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