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EX 9, 10, 11, Joints, Skeletal System Quiz

The skeleton is constructed of two types of tissue

Bone and cartilage

Bones of the skeleton are connected at junctions called

Articulations

Vertebrae belong to this category of bones

Irregular

Which of the following bone markings helps form joints

Head

This is a passageway for blood vessels and nerves

Foramen

The diaphysis of a long bone is covered by

Periosteum

What are the telescoping tubes of matrix (concentric lamellae) with their central canals that form a large part of compact bone

Osteons

Bones are somewhat flexible due to

Collagen fibers in the matrix

An example of a sesamoid bone is the

Patella

A trochanter is a

Large irregularly shaped projection

A condyle differs from an epicondyle in that the condyle

Is a raised area above a joint

In adults, _______ marrow fills the central canal of long bones, and ________ marrow is found in the epiphyses

Yellow, yellow

This membrane lines the shaft of long bones, and covers the trabeculae of spongy bone

Endosteum

Curves are concave anterior

Thoracic and sacral (Kyphosis)

Curves are convex and anterior

Lumbar and cervical (Lordosis)

What kind of tissue comprises the epiphyseal plate of bones

Hyaline cartilage

The axial skeleton includes all of the following except the

Pectoral and pelvic girdles

The cranial bones that house the organs of hearing are the ______ bones

Sphenoid

The midline suture marking the articulation of the two parietal bones is called the _________ suture

Sagittal

The foramen magnum is located in which bone of the skull

Occipital

These are the cheek bones of the face

Zygomatics

The transverse processes of vertebrae point ________, while the spinous process points ________

Laterally, posteriorly

The _______ is a median posterior projection arising at the junction of two laminae of the vertebral body

Spinous process

Costal facets are found on the ________ vertebrae

Thoracic

How many pairs of ribs are there

12

This facial bone forms part of the nasal septum

Vomer

Blood vessels and nerves pass through the mental foramen on the

Mandible

This bone does not articulate with any other bone in the body

Hyoid

You pick up a vertebra to identify it and note that the transverse processes contain foramina. This unique feature identifies the vertebra as coming from the _________ region of the vertebral column

Cervical

Intervertebral discs are absent from these vertebrae

Atlas and axis

This primary curvature of the spine is located in the chest region

Thoracic

The sella turcica, part of which surrounds the pituitary gland is part of the ________ bone

Sphenoid

Seven pairs of ribs articulate _________ with the sternum

Directly via costal cartilages

These important bone markings are located on the sternum

Jugular notch and xiphisternal joint

This part of the rib articulates with the appropriate vertebra

Head

These bones form the shoulder girdle

Clavicle and scapula

Name the bone or bones of the forearm

Radius and ulna

The glenoid cavity of the scapula receives the

Humerus

These are major sites of muscle attachment on the femur

Greater and lesser trochanters

This bone bears the medial malleolus

Tibia

These are the ankle bones

Tarsals

Little bones of the fingers and toes are called the

Phalanges

The coxal bones articulate with each other at the

Pubic symphysis

This part of the coxal bone bears your weight when you sit

Ischial tuberosity

The acromial end of the clavicle articulates with the

Scapula

This/these fossa(e) of the scapula contain muscles that stabilize the

All of the above

The radius articulates with this condyle of the humerus

Capitulum

Extension (or straightening) of the elbow stops when the proximal end of the ulna encounters the

Olecranon fossa of the humerus

The exceptional flexibility of the shoulder girdle is due, in part, to the

Strong ligament that holds the head of the humerus to its socket

This bone articulates with the acetabulum

Femur

The head of the fibula articulates with the

Tibia

The leg bones articulate with this ankle bone and transfer weight to the foot

Calcaneus

Which limb contains more bones

Lower

These are characteristics of the male pelvis

The sacrum curves ventrally into the pelvic outlet

Name the large bone of the thigh

Femur

Using the structural classification of joints, the shoulder is a ________ joint

Synovial

Using the functional classification of joints, the intervertebral joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae is a(n) ________ joint

Amphiarthrotic (slightly movable)

The articular cartilage in synovial joints best resembles

Hyaline cartilage

Which joint can move in only two planes

Metacarpophalangeal

Which statement is true about synovial joints

Ball and socket joints are multiaxial

Muscles are strung across joints and can therefore move them. The insertion of a muscle

Moves toward the origin during contraction

Flexion and extension are usually movements in the ________ plane(s) of the body

Sagittal

Pronation and supination are movements of the

Palm of the hand

you are asked to demonstrate plantar flexion. To do this you must move your

Ankle

This structure contributes to stability of the hip joint

Acetabular labrum

In this type of cartilaginous joint, bones are connected by fibrocartilage. The joint is amphiarthrotic

Symphysis

This special type of joint holds the teeth in place

Gomphosis

This joint of the body has the greatest range of movement

Shoulder

The _______ joint is an immovable joint that holds bones of the axial skeleton tightly together to protect the ______

Suture, brain

Which of the following will reduce friction in synovial joints?

articular cartilage, bursae and synovial fluid

Ligaments reinforce joints by holding the bones together. What tissue type are ligaments?

Dense regular connective tissue

What is true about the movement of properties of the following joints

All synovial joints are freely movable

A joint can only perform these movements: flexion/extension and abduction/adduction. It is therefore a _______ joint

Biaxial

The biceps branchii muscle flexes the elbow. What could you do to make the elbow extend

Contract a muscle on the posterior side of the elbow (Tricep)

The lining of the morrow cavity

Endosteum

Cells that can dissolve the bony matrix

Osteoclasts

Layers of bone matrix

Lamellae

Small channels that radiate through the matrix of bone

Canaliculi

cells that can build bony matrix

Osteoblasts

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of

Fat

Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates a projection that helps to form joints

Ramus

Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include

Drinking milk

Which of the following is not a funciton of the skeletal system

Communication

What is the structural unit of compact bone

The osteon

The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of

Blood vessels and nerve fibers

What are the small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live called

Lacunae

Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream

Parathyroid hormone

Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels

Thyroid

Which forms the largest portion of the coxal bone

Ilium

The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the

Sagittal

the pituitary gland is housed in the

Sella turcica of the sphenoid

Attach to the ribs

Thoracic

Receives the most stress

Lumbar

Transverse foramina present

Cervical

Articulates with the hip bones of the pelvis

Sacrum

No canals or foramen present

Coccyx

Includes the atlas and the axis

Cervical

Contains the joint that allows you to rotate your head "no"

Cervical

What is the major function of the intervertebral discs

Absorb shock

Which part of the vertebral column receives the most stress by bearing most of the weight of the body

The lumbar region

Thoracic vertebrae differ from the other vertebrae in that they have

Facets for attachment of ribs

Which bone contains diaphysis and epiphysis areas, a tuberosity near its middle and is proportionally more compact than spongy bone

Humerus

Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called

Bursae

The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called

Cruciate ligaments

Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of

Hyperextension

What are menisci

Semilunar cartilage pads

What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane called

Abduction

The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the

Feet

Which of the following conditions is generally considered a noninflammatory type of arthritis

Osteoarthritis

What can cause gouty arthritis

Excessive blood levels of uric acid depositied as crystals in the soft tissue joints

Skull bones are

Flat

The humerus is

Long

The ribs are

Flat

The vertebrae are

Irregular

The phalanges are

Long

The patella is

Sesamoid

The tarsals are

Short

Which of the following is not part of the synovial joint?

Tendon sheath

Which of the following bones is not weight bearing

Fibula

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