smallest particle of an element
positively charged particle of an atom
neutral particle of an atom
negatively charged particle of an atom
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
an unstable isotope of an element, which undergoes radioactive decay
An electrically charged atom that has gained or lost electrons
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
bond formed by the SHARING of electrons between atoms
bond formed by the TRANSFERING of electrons from one atom to another
weak bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to negatively charged atoms
covalent bond formed between amino acids
property of a molecule with oppositely charged ends. because of it, water is able to dissolve many different substances
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
A molecule that has electrically charged areas.
macromolecules used for energy storage, cell membranes, and waterproofing
Type of lipid, A long, straight hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group attached at one end
a lipid made of phosphate group (hydrophilic head) and two fatty acids (hydrophobic tails). forms cell membrane.
steroid molecule present in the plasma membranes of animal cells
polymer made up of amino acid monomers
sugar molecules (monosaccharides AND polysaccharides)
basic building blocks of protein molecules
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
determines a molecule's function. is hydrphilic. includes the hodroxl, carboxyl, carbonyl, amino, phosphate groups.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
breaks down molecules by adding water to them
A research method whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis stated, and hypothesis is tested
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
A cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. either unicellular (protists) or multicellular (fungi, plants and animals).
describes a cell that does not have a nucleus or anyother membrane-covered organelles; also called bacteria.
protein substances that speed up chemical reactions.
has a low pH, donates H(+) ions
has a high pH, accepts H(+) ions
long chains of monomers
building blocks of polymers
single sugar molecule
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose. for energy
polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers. for energy
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls. Tougher than other polysaccharides. for structure
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.