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chapters 2 & 3

atom

smallest particle of an element

proton

positively charged particle of an atom

neutron

neutral particle of an atom

electron

negatively charged particle of an atom

isotope

atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus

radioisotope

an unstable isotope of an element, which undergoes radioactive decay

ion

An electrically charged atom that has gained or lost electrons

element

A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

covalent bond

bond formed by the SHARING of electrons between atoms

ionic bond

bond formed by the TRANSFERING of electrons from one atom to another

hydrogen bond

weak bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to negatively charged atoms

hydrophilic

"water loving"

hydrophobic

"water hating"

peptide bond

covalent bond formed between amino acids

polarity

property of a molecule with oppositely charged ends. because of it, water is able to dissolve many different substances

molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

polar molecule

A molecule that has electrically charged areas.

macromolecule

large molecules

lipid

macromolecules used for energy storage, cell membranes, and waterproofing

fatty acid

Type of lipid, A long, straight hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group attached at one end

phospholipid

a lipid made of phosphate group (hydrophilic head) and two fatty acids (hydrophobic tails). forms cell membrane.

cholesterol

steroid molecule present in the plasma membranes of animal cells

protien

polymer made up of amino acid monomers

carbohydrate

sugar molecules (monosaccharides AND polysaccharides)

amino acid

basic building blocks of protein molecules

polypeptide

A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.

functional groups

determines a molecule's function. is hydrphilic. includes the hodroxl, carboxyl, carbonyl, amino, phosphate groups.

dehydration synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.

hydrolysis

breaks down molecules by adding water to them

scientific method

A research method whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis stated, and hypothesis is tested

cell theory

idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells

eukaryotic

A cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. either unicellular (protists) or multicellular (fungi, plants and animals).

prokaryotic

describes a cell that does not have a nucleus or anyother membrane-covered organelles; also called bacteria.

enzymes

protein substances that speed up chemical reactions.

acid

has a low pH, donates H(+) ions

base

has a high pH, accepts H(+) ions

organic molecule

carbon-based molecule

polymers

long chains of monomers

monomers

building blocks of polymers

monosaccharide

single sugar molecule

starch

A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose. for energy

glycogen

polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers. for energy

cellulose

polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls. Tougher than other polysaccharides. for structure

disaccharide

A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.

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