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Blood

Hematology

The study of blood is

Oxygen

INTO the BLOOD- _______ from the lungs, nutrients from the small intestines

Waste

OUT OF the BLOOD- _____ goes out the kidneys, skin and large intestine

Transporter

Blood carries substances to the cells by putting them into the interstitial fluid so it is the _____

Diffuser

The interstitial fluid flows between cells in the interstitial space so it is the _____

Blood

Transport- oxygen, nutrients, waste
Protection- clotting, immunity = white blood cells (WBC), interferon, complement
are all Functions of __________

...

Characteristics of blood:
Alkaline: 7.4 pH avg.
8 % of body weight (if you weighted 100 pounds, and lost all your blood you would lose 8 pounds)
Blood volume: 1.2 gallon female, 1.5 gallon male
Temperature of the blood is a little higher then body temperature, WHY?

Plasma, cells

If Blood is spun down (centrifuged), we see two parts: ______ and ______

Red blood cells, white blood cells

Cells of the blood are mostly _____ (RBCs). The rest, only 1%, is basically platelets and ____ (WBCs)

42, 47

Centrifuging blood forces cells to separate from plasma.
Hematocrit is the % of total volume of cells
Normal crit = females ____ avg., males ___ avg.

red blood cell

Hematocrit of 40 means that 40 % of the blood is __ __ __s

No

Does a doctor do a hematocrit to determine the amount of WBCs or platelets? YES NO

white blood cell

What is in the buffy coat __ __ __s after Centrifuging blood forces cells to separate from plasma?

red blood cell

Abnormal:
Low crit =Anemia, decreased __ __ __s
High crit = Polycythemia

erythrocytes

Mature RBCs are called _______ (red, cells)
Contains oxygen-carrying protein called hemoglobin. Anatomy- 7.5 microns, biconcave disc- can get into small places. Gets energy anaerobically So it doesn't need the oxygen that it's carrying.

Reticulocyte

__________count ("Tic") measures the rate of erythropoiesis and so can give an indication of RBC creation.

Low

______ tic count = red bone marrow NOT working. Cause = nutritional deficiency or leukemia

High

______ tic count = usually good sign, response to iron therapy

Oxygen

RBC count & hemoglobin concentration indicate the amount of _____ the blood can carry

120

RBCs live for ____ days

Clotting

membrane fragility -- lysis in narrow channels in the spleen through a process called ____________

15, 14

Hemoglobin concentration of whole blood
men avg. ____; women avg. ___

5.5, 5

RBC count
men _____ million avg.; women _____ million avg.

hypoxia

Cellular oxygen deficiency is _____ This can cause cell death (necrosis)

Ischemia

_______ is a form of hypoxia due to obstruction of blood flow, some diseases related to hypoxia: stroke, trauma, heart attack, multiple organ failures, cancer, respiratory diseases, and hemorrhagic stroke.

AB

This blood type can receive any other blood type.

O

This blood type can give blood to any other blood type.

Agglutination

massive clumping of blood

Granular

Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophiles
are all _________, and White blood cells (leukocytes ). These types stain.

Agranular

Lymphocytes, and Monocytes are all _________, and White blood cells (leukocytes ). And do not stain.

immunity

Circulating WBCs do not stay in bloodstream
granulocytes leave in 8 hours
monocytes leave and transform into macrophages
WBCs provide long-term ______lasting decades to fight off invaders*

Basophils

This cell stains dark violet, basic stains

eosinophils

This cell stains - pink-orange
pink stain

neutrophils

This cell stains Reddish to violet granules in cytoplasm.
Older neutrophils are called polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes or "POLYS"
neutral stain

neutrophils

(increase in bacterial infections)
*phagocytosis of bacteria
releases antimicrobial chemicals*

eosinophils

(increase in parasitic infections or allergies)
phagocytosis of antigen-antibody complexes, allergens & inflammatory chemicals
release enzymes destroy parasites such as worms

Basophils

(increase in chicken pox, sinusitis, diabetes)
*secrete histamine (vasodilator)
secrete heparin (anticoagulant)*

Monocytes

the cops of the body
The blood is a transport system (cop car) for monocytes as they fight infection in tissues
They go into tissue and become macrophages (macro= big, phage= eater)

Lymphocytes

cytoplasm stains and forms a blue rim around the cell
B cells, T cells and Killer cells

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