The study of blood is
INTO the BLOOD- _______ from the lungs, nutrients from the small intestines
OUT OF the BLOOD- _____ goes out the kidneys, skin and large intestine
Blood carries substances to the cells by putting them into the interstitial fluid so it is the _____
The interstitial fluid flows between cells in the interstitial space so it is the _____
Transport- oxygen, nutrients, waste
Protection- clotting, immunity = white blood cells (WBC), interferon, complement
are all Functions of __________
Characteristics of blood:
Alkaline: 7.4 pH avg.
8 % of body weight (if you weighted 100 pounds, and lost all your blood you would lose 8 pounds)
Blood volume: 1.2 gallon female, 1.5 gallon male
Temperature of the blood is a little higher then body temperature, WHY?
If Blood is spun down (centrifuged), we see two parts: ______ and ______
Red blood cells, white blood cells
Cells of the blood are mostly _____ (RBCs). The rest, only 1%, is basically platelets and ____ (WBCs)
Centrifuging blood forces cells to separate from plasma.
Hematocrit is the % of total volume of cells
Normal crit = females ____ avg., males ___ avg.
red blood cell
Hematocrit of 40 means that 40 % of the blood is __ __ __s
Does a doctor do a hematocrit to determine the amount of WBCs or platelets? YES NO
white blood cell
What is in the buffy coat __ __ __s after Centrifuging blood forces cells to separate from plasma?
red blood cell
Low crit =Anemia, decreased __ __ __s
High crit = Polycythemia
Mature RBCs are called _______ (red, cells)
Contains oxygen-carrying protein called hemoglobin. Anatomy- 7.5 microns, biconcave disc- can get into small places. Gets energy anaerobically So it doesn't need the oxygen that it's carrying.
__________count ("Tic") measures the rate of erythropoiesis and so can give an indication of RBC creation.
______ tic count = red bone marrow NOT working. Cause = nutritional deficiency or leukemia
______ tic count = usually good sign, response to iron therapy
RBC count & hemoglobin concentration indicate the amount of _____ the blood can carry
RBCs live for ____ days
membrane fragility -- lysis in narrow channels in the spleen through a process called ____________
Hemoglobin concentration of whole blood
men avg. ____; women avg. ___
men _____ million avg.; women _____ million avg.
Cellular oxygen deficiency is _____ This can cause cell death (necrosis)
_______ is a form of hypoxia due to obstruction of blood flow, some diseases related to hypoxia: stroke, trauma, heart attack, multiple organ failures, cancer, respiratory diseases, and hemorrhagic stroke.
This blood type can receive any other blood type.
This blood type can give blood to any other blood type.
massive clumping of blood
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophiles
are all _________, and White blood cells (leukocytes ). These types stain.
Lymphocytes, and Monocytes are all _________, and White blood cells (leukocytes ). And do not stain.
Circulating WBCs do not stay in bloodstream
granulocytes leave in 8 hours
monocytes leave and transform into macrophages
WBCs provide long-term ______lasting decades to fight off invaders*
This cell stains dark violet, basic stains
This cell stains - pink-orange
This cell stains Reddish to violet granules in cytoplasm.
Older neutrophils are called polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes or "POLYS"
(increase in bacterial infections)
*phagocytosis of bacteria
releases antimicrobial chemicals*
(increase in parasitic infections or allergies)
phagocytosis of antigen-antibody complexes, allergens & inflammatory chemicals
release enzymes destroy parasites such as worms
(increase in chicken pox, sinusitis, diabetes)
*secrete histamine (vasodilator)
secrete heparin (anticoagulant)*
the cops of the body
The blood is a transport system (cop car) for monocytes as they fight infection in tissues
They go into tissue and become macrophages (macro= big, phage= eater)
cytoplasm stains and forms a blue rim around the cell
B cells, T cells and Killer cells