"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
332 Fighter Group famous for shooting down over 200 enemy planes. African American pilots who trained at the Tuskegee flying school.
Bataan Death March
April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors. It is called the Death March because so may of the prisoners died en route.
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.
the place at which the three allied leaders, Truman, Stalin, and Atlee, met to discuss the distribution of Germany and the ultimatum that they would issue to Japan demanding thier immediate surrender
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
Harry S. Truman
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
Lt. Calley,March, 1968 - An American unit destroyed the village of My Lai, killing many women and children. The incident was not revealed to the public until 20 months later. Lt. Calley, who led the patrol, was convicted of murder and sentenced to 10 years for killing 20 people.
Lyndon B. Johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
Lawyer and civil rights leader who helped in Brown V. Board of education case for integration of public schools
Brown v. Board
a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier rulings going back to Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, by declaring that state laws which established separate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal educational opportunities. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9-0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This victory paved the way for integration and the Civil Rights Movement.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Black Panther Party
A group formed in 1966, inspired by the idea of Black Power, that provided aid to black neighborhoods; often thought of as radical or violent.
Dr. Jonas Salk
developer of a vaccine to prevent polio
First American woman in space
president 1974-77, Nixon's Vice president, only person not voted into the White House, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned
British general who in an attack at El Alamein was able to drive the Germans away from the Suez Canal
prime minister of Japan during reign of Hirohito (WW2); basically ran the country
Asian Americans that served in the military during World War II
Beach in France Allies Invaded,Codenamed Operation Overlord, it was the long awaited Allied invasion of France and the opening of the Second Front during World War II. The initial invasion began on June 6, 1944.
naval battle of World War II (June 1942)
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)
Town in Egypt, site of the victory by Britain's Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery over German forces led by General Erwin Rommel
Navajo Code Talkers
Navajo soldiers in the Pacific used their own language as a code for sending vital messages. Hard to understand.
Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,
General Douglas MacArthur
He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2(He liberated the Phillipines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War)
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
John F. Kennedy
president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
he was elected to be US President after Johnson decided to not to run for US president again. He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soliders from South Vietnam
Executive Order 9981
Establishes equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services for people of all race, religions, or national origins
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
The Little Rock Nine
Group of African-American students that were integrated into an all-white school in 1957
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr
An African-American Civil Right's Activist who was peaceful. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his cause. He was assasinated in 1968 in Tennesee
42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached
Sandra Day O'Conner
first woman on the supreme court
The 39th President who created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
George C. Marshall
Secretary of State, invited the Europeans to work out a joint plan for their economic recovery, offered financial aid to the Soviet Union and its allies
"Rosie the Riveter"
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
Siege of Stalingrad
WHO: Russians and Germany
WHAT:despite massive losses, Russians successfully defended the city; over one-third of German army surrendered
WHY: Turning point in Germany's assault on Soviet Union in 1942
humane treatment of POWs, no execution,torture or starvation,must be given shelter, all but Japan and Germany signed
a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders (February and March 1945)
Battle of Britain
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
final solution of the Jewish question-murder of every single Jew-had begun-mass arresting, and trafficking of Jews to the concentration camps-mass killings occurred as well in the gas chambers
Office of Strategic Services
a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency, and it was the predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
When FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet; they agreed to wage war on Japan, to divide Germany into 4 equal parts, on the big 5's veto, and to hold free elections for the liberated countries
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. He was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
communists who received international attention when they were executed having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American atomic bomb to the Soviet Union
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
Ho Chin Minh
was a Vietnamese revolutionary and statesman, who later became prime minister (1946-1955) and president (1946-1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam).
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Supply Side Economics
An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
In 1966, as chair of SNCC, he called to assert Black Power. Supporting the Black Panthers, he was against integration.
George H. W. Bush
republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes eventhough said he wouldnt, more centrist than his son, NAFTA negotiation. 41st
1960s; wrote "The Feminine Mystique," an account of housewives' lives in which they suboordinated their own aspirations to the needs of men; bestseller was an inspiration for many women to join the women's rights movement`
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.