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The Integumentary System

The two basic tissues of which the skin is composed are dense irregular connective tissue, which makes up the dermis, and

Stratified squamous epithelium

The tough water repellent protein found in the epidermal cells is called

Keratin

The pigments melanin and ________ contribute to skin color

Carotene

A localized concentration of melanin is referred to as a

Freckle

Four protective functions of the skin are

Insulate and cushion
Protect from mechanical damage
Protect from chemical damage
Protect from heat

Translucent cells in thick skin containing keratin fibrils

Stratum lucidum

Dead cells

Stratum lucidum
Stratum corneum

Dermal layer responsible for fingerprints

Papillary layer

Vascular region

Dermis as a whole

Major skin area that produces derivatives (nails and hair)

Epidermis as a whole

Epidermal region exhibiting the most rapid cell division

Stratum basale

Scalelike dead cells, full of keratin, that constantly slough off

Stratum corneum

Mitotic cells filled with intermediate filaments

Stratum spinosum

Has abundant elastic and collagen fibers

Dermis as a whole

Location of melanocytes and tactile (Merkel) cells

Stratum basale

Area where weblike pre-keratin filaments first appear

Stratum spinosum

Region of areolar connective tissue

Papillary layer

__________ granules extruded from the keratinocytes prevent water loss by diffusion through the epidermis

Lamellated

Fibers in the dermis are produced by

Collagen and elastin

Glands that respond to rising androgen levels are the ___________ glands

Sebaceous

Phagocytic cells that occupy the epidermis are called

Langerhans cells

A unique touch receptor formed from a stratum basale cell and a nerve fiber is a

Tactile or Merkel disc

What layer is present in thick skin but not in thin skin

Stratum lucidum

What cell-to-cell structures hold the cells of the stratum spinosum tightly together

Desmosomes

What substance is manufactured in the skin that plays a role in calcium absorption elsewhere in the body

Vitamin D

List the sensory receptors found in the dermis of the skin

Free nerve endings (pain receptors)
Meissner's corpuscles (touch receptors)
Pacinian corpusles (pressure receptors)

Cyanosis

Blue cast to skin
Lack of blood flow and O2

Bedsore (decubitus ulcer)

Restriction of normal blood supply to the skin in bedridden patients
Bony projections go into skin when they are not turned regularly resulting in tissue death

Produces an accumulation of oily material that is known as a blackhead

Sebaceous glands

Tiny muscles, attached to hair follicles, that pull the hair upright during fright or cold

Arrector pili

Perspiration glands with a role in temperature control

Sweat gland - Eccrine

Sheath formed of both epithelial and connective tissues

Hair follicle

Less numerous type of perspiration-producing gland; found mainly in the pubic and axillary regions

Sweat gland - Apocrine

Found everywhere on the body except the palms of hands and soles of feet

Sebaceous glands

Primarily dead/keratinized cells

Hair

Specialized nerve endings that respond to temperature, touch etc.

Cutaneous receptors

Secretes a lubricant for hair and skin

Sebaceous

"Sports" a lunule and a cuticle

Nail

Two integumentary system mechanisms that help in regulating body temperature

Sweating
Bloos vessels contrict/dilate to control heat

What organ system controls the activity of the eccrine sweat glands

Nervous system

3 common fingerprint patterns

Arches
Loops
Whorls

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