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Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages

Sharp slender process

Spine

Small rounded projection

Tubercle

Narrow ridge of bone

Crest

Large rounded projection

Tuberosity

Structure supported on neck

Head

Armlike projection

Ramus

Rounded, articular projection

Condyle

Narrow opening

Fissure

Canal-like opening

Meatus

Round or oval opening through a bone

Foramen

Shallow depression

Fossa

Air-filled cavity

Sinus

Large, irregularly shaped projection

Trochanter

Raised area on or above a condyle

Epicondyle

Projection or prominence

Process

Smooth, nearly flat articular surface

Facet

Long bones

Femur
Humerus
Phalanges
Ulna
Radius
Tibia
Fibula

Short bones

Tarsals
Carpals
Calcaneus

Flat bones

Ilium
Skull
Facial
Thoracic
Sternum
Scapula
Clavicle

Irregular bones

Vertebrae

Sesamoid

Patella

Contains spongy bone in adults

Epiphysis

Made of compact bone

Diaphysis

Site of blood cell formation

Epiphysis and spongy bone

Major submembranous site of osteoclasts

Endosteum

Scientific term for bone shaft

Diaphysis

Contains fat in adult bones

Medullary cavity

Growth plate remnant

Epiphyseal line

Major submembranous site of osteoblasts

Periosteum

Difference between compact and spongy bone

Compact - dense, strong, yellow marrow
Spongy - Ends of bones red marrow, blood made (yellow in adults that can convert to red to make blood)

Function of the periosteum

Fibrous membrane covering attached by fibers
Enter into bone allowing nerves, blood/lymphatic vessels top pass through it

Route taken by nutrients through a bone, starting with periosteum and ending with an osteocyte in a lacuna

Periosteum - perforating canals - central canals - caliculus - lacunae

Layers of bony matrix around a central canal

Concentric lamellae

Site of osteocytes

Lacunae

Longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves

Central canal

Minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon

Caliculi

Inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance

Matrix

Function of the organic matrix in bone

Gives flexibility and strength

Important organic bone components

Collagen fibers and osteocytes

Calcium salts are the bulk of inorganic components in the bone. What is the function of the calcium salts

Gives bone hardness and compressional strength

Baking removes _________ from bone

water

Soaking bone in acid removes

calcium salts

Events occuring on the epiphyseal and diaphyseal faces of the epiphyseal plate
Epiphyseal face

Cartilage cells resting, inactive, below rapid of reproduction cells

Events occuring on the epiphyseal and diaphyseal faces of the epiphyseal plate
Diaphyseal face

Chondrocytes are dying, matrix calcifying, cartilage being replaced by bone

Supports external ear

Elastic

Between the vertebrae

Fibrocartilage

Forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)

Elastic

The epiglottis

Elastic

Articular cartilages

Hyaline

Meniscus in a knee joint

Fibrocartilage

Connects the ribs to the sternum

Hyaline

Most effective at resisting compression

Fibrocartilage

Most springy and flexible

Elastic

Most abundant

Hyaline

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