a nineteenth-century movement in the Romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau advocated this process of defying codes of conduct within a community or ignoring the policies and government of a state or nation when the civil laws are unjust.
written by Henry David Thoreau; a personal account of his life spent in a cabin on the edge of Walden Pond, where he lived simply and found truth
An essay written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, emphasizing the importance of the individual
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
Characteristics of Transcendentalism
man has unlimited potential, individual really important, man develops intuition by being one with nature, and man, God, and nature share a common soul.
Master of satire. A regionalist writer who gave his stories "local color" through dialects and detailed descriptions. His works include The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, "The Amazing Jumping Frog of Calaverus County," and stories about the American West.
Edward Mills and George Benton
Contrary to their foster parents' moralistic motto, Edward Mills is "pure, honest, sober, industrious, and considerate", and lives a life of hardship; whereas George Benton is the opposite and, thanks to charity and pity and social organizations, has friends and fame!
The Autobiography of Mark Twain ("The Mesmerizer")
o Wants to better than others, even at the task of being a participant in a hypnotist
o Needed to outdo Hicks- craved the attention; Twain saw Hicks as someone who
was not his equal. Felt superiority towards this man.
- Good performer and actor
o Able to handle the pain of having needles thrust into his arms
o His convincing performance of chasing the bully with gun
- Prideful- did not admit to his mother for thirty-five years that he was not truly
hypnotized. Did not want to admit to being a liar.
o After a month of being told how great he had been, he became tired of it.
Recognize the lies he had told and they became a burden for him.
- Selfish- does not like when others are getting attention
- Highly intelligent- recognized the mesmerizer's tricks and how he could insert himself
into the show
o Showed a great imagination in the things that he did in the show
o Remembered the details of Dr. Peake's story of the Richmond theater fire so
clearly that he was able to convince the doctor that Twain was recalling his own
memories. Twain heard the story three to four years previous.
an element in literature that conveys a realistic portrayal of a specific geographical locale, using the locale and its influences as a major part of the plot
The Prince and the Pauper
Tom Canty, an impoverished boy living with his abusive family in London. One day, Tom Canty and Prince Edward, the son of King Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, meet, and as a jest, switch clothes. While dressed in the pauper's rags, the Prince leaves the palace to punish the guard who knocked Tom down. However, the boys look remarkably alike and because they switch clothes, the palace guards throw the prince out into the street. The Prince fares poorly in London because he insists on proclaiming his identity as the true Prince of Wales. Meanwhile despite Tom's repeated denial of his birthright, the court and the King insist that he is the true prince gone mad. Edward eventually runs into Tom's family and a gang of thieves and Twain illustrates England's unfair and barbaric justice system. After the death of Henry VIII, Edward interrupts Tom's coronation and the boys explain, switch places, and Edward is crowned King of England...
Life on the Mississippi
a memoir by Mark Twain, of his days as a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River before the American Civil War, and also a travel book, recounting his trip along the Mississippi many years after the War.
local color realism
fiction and poetry that focuses on the characters, dialect, customs, topography, and other features particular to a specific region. Influenced by Southwestern and Down East humor, between the Civil War and the end of the nineteenth century this mode of writing became dominant in American literature.
wrote Red Badge of Courage; American novelist, short story writer, poet, journalist, raised in NY and NJ; style and technique: naturalism, realism, impressionism; themes: ideals v. realities, spiritual crisis, fears
The Mystery of Heroism
describes a type of literature that attempts to apply scientific principles of objectivity and detachment to its study of human beings. Unlike realism which focuses on literary technique naturalism implies a philosophical position
a feeling of disappointment resulting from the discovery that something is not as good as one believed it to be
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
A major feminist prophet during the late 19th and early 20th century. She published "Women and Economics" which called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute more to the community through the economy. She created centralized nurseries and kitchens to help get women into the work force.
The Yellow Wallpaper
critique of professional medicine, especially in regard to how women's emotions were viewed
a southern writer who explored the oppressive features of traditional marriage, encountered widespread public abuse after publication of her shocking novel, The Awakening, which described a young wife and mother who left her family for personal fulfillment
The Story of an Hour
Josephine thinks her husband is dead and gets happy and dies from excitement but then the husband turned out alive and not dead
Armand marries Desiree without knowing much about her background and family, claiming to love her no matter what. When Desiree has their baby, Armand begins treating her differently. She notices their baby is half black, and Armand accuses her of having black heritage, then kicks her out. She kills herself and the baby. Later Armand is going through letters and finds out it is himself with black heritage.
simple words of love, life, nature and death sometimes with deep meanings written during her social and her reclusive years
F. Scott Fitzgerald
a novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. his wife, zelda and he were the "couple" of the decade but hit bottom during the depression. his noval THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about a gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl.
Bernice Bobs Hair
Bernice overhears a conversation between Marjorie and Marjorie's mother where the younger girl complains that Bernice is socially hopeless. The next day, Bernice threatens to leave town, but when Marjorie is unfazed, Bernice relents and agrees to let Marjorie turn her into a society girl. Marjorie teaches Bernice how to hold interesting conversations, how to flirt with even unattractive or uninteresting boys to make herself seem more desirable, and how to dance. Bernice's best line is teasing the boys with the idea that she will soon bob her hair and they will get to watch.
The new Bernice is a big hit with the boys in town with her new attitude, especially with Warren, a boy Marjorie keeps around as her own but neglects. When it becomes clear that Warren has shifted his interest from Marjorie to Bernice, Marjorie sets about humiliating Bernice, tricking her into going through with bobbing her hair. When Bernice comes out of the barbershop with the new hairdo, her hair is flat and strange and the boys suddenly lose interest in her, and Bernice realizes she's been tricked.Marjorie's mother points out that Bernice's haircut (which at the time was only seen on "liberated" women) would cause a scandal at an upcoming party held in her and Marjorie's honor. Bernice, deiciding it would be best to leave the town before the party the next day, packs her trunk in the middle of the night and decides to leave on a train at 1 a.m. Before she goes, she sneaks into Marjorie's room and cuts off her cousin's two braids, taking them with her on her run to the station and throwing them onto Warren's front porch.
young man from mn who caddied that only had the job for pocket money since his dad owned 2nd best grocerys tore in town, during winter he skied the golf course imagining himself as golf champion, mr.jones wants him to stay caddying forever, he claims hes too old yet hes only 14 but promised he'll caddy for him in state tourney, quit caddying b/c jones' daughter freaked out on nurse he laughed and mrjones said he had to caddy for daughter but he quit cause his 'iwnter dreams' told him to
fought in Italy in 1917. He later became a famous author who wrote "The Sun Also Rises" (about American expatriates in Europe) and "A Farewell to Arms." In the 1920's he became upset with the idealism of America versus the realism he saw in World War I. He was very distraught, and in 1961 he shot himself in the head.
The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber
Francis Macomber and his wife Margaret (usually referred to as "Margot"), are on a big-game safari in Africa, guided by professional hunter Robert Wilson. Earlier, Francis had panicked when a wounded lion charged him. Margot mocks Macomber for this act of cowardice, and it is implied that she sleeps with Wilson.
The next day the party hunt buffalo. Macomber and Wilson hunt together where the pair shoot 3 buffalo. Two of the buffalo are killed, but the first buffalo was only wounded and has gone into the bush. Macomber now feels confident, and he and Wilson proceed to track the wounded animal, paralleling the circumstances of the previous day's lion hunt.
When they find the buffalo, it charges Macomber while he stands his ground and fires at it. His shots are too high, and Wilson fires at the beast as well, but it keeps charging. Macomber kills the buffalo at the last minute, while Margot fires a shot from the car at the buffalo. However, the shot hits Macomber in the skull and kills him. Margot falls to the ground and weeps.
Zora Neale Hurston
Black writer who wanted to save African American folklore. She traveled all across the South collecting folk tales, songs & prayers of Black southerners. Her book was called Mules and Men.
J. D. Salinger
wrote in the Catcher in the Rye of a prep school student, Holden Caulfield who was unable to find any are of society—school, family, friends, city - in which he could feel secure or committed.
continued efforts in spite of difficulties
exceedingly bad; wicked or cruel; abominable
moving with a wavelike motion; V. undulate; CF. und: wave
the act of deriding or treating with contempt
not having life; without energy or spirit
permanently; in a way that cannot be erased or removed
covered with or as if with a glossy and usually brightly colored coating
in an extremely obvious way; conspicuously
contort the face to indicate a certain mental or emotional state
impervious to correction by punishment
skillful (or showing skill) in adapting means to ends
wishing or appearing to wish evil to others
affording no ease or reassurance