LC Chem 8 Chemical Equilibrium

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chemistry

Static

State of equilibrium where the entire system is stable and not moving.

Dynamic

State of equilibrium where the system is moving but the two opposing motions balance each other

Reversible reaction

A reaction which takes place both in the forward and backward directions

Chemical equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance where the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.

Le Chatelier's Principle

If a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system readjusts to relieve the stress applied.

Decreasing the concentration of products

Favours the forward reaction in order to replace the products removed

Decreasing the concentration of reactants

Favours the backward reaction in order to replace the reactants removed

Increasing the concentration of reactants

Favours the forward reaction in order to use up the extra reactants

Raising the temperature

Favours the endothermic reaction (the rise in temperature is counteracted by the absorption of heat)

Lowering the temperature

Favours the exothermic reaction (the fall in temperature is counteracted by the emission of heat)

Increasing the pressure

Favours the reaction in which there is a reduction in volume (towards the side with the smaller number of molecules)

Catalyst

Substance which will speed up the rate of reaction but it will not change the position of the equilibrium

Haber Process

Process used to manufacture Ammonia

Iron

Catalyst used in the Haber Process

Low (temperature)

Le Chatelier's principle predicts the yield of NH3 in the Haber Process is maximised by these conditions of temperature

High (pressure)

Le Chatelier's principle predicts the yield of NH3 in the Haber Process is maximised by these conditions of pressure

500 C

Actual temperature used in the Haber Process (as lower temp reduces the rate)

200 ATM

Actual pressure used in the Haber Process (as higher pressure presents a risk of explosion)

Contact Process

Process used in the manufacture of Sulfuric Acid

Vanadium pentoxide

Catalyst used in the Contact Process

Low (temperature)

Le Chatelier's principle predicts the yield of SO3 in the Contact Process is maximised by these conditions of temperature

High (pressure)

Le Chatelier's principle predicts the yield of SO3 in the Contact Process is maximised by these conditions of pressure

450 C

Actual temperature used in the Contact Process (as lower temp reduces the rate)

1 ATM

Actual pressure used in the Contact Process (as higher pressure presents a risk of explosion)

Kc

Equilibrium constant = [C]c[D]d / [A]a[B]b

Temperature

Effects the value of Kc (should always be stated with the Kc value)

Concentration (of reactants or products)

Does not affect the value of Kc (reaction will deal with the changes and return to the same equilibrium value)

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