Chapter 2 The Body as a Whole

66 terms by alliy1207

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abdomen

part of the trunk between thorax and pelvis

anatomy

the study of the structures of the human body

anterior

the front surface of the body

caudal

pertaining to or nearer to the tailbone

cephalic

pertaining to or nearer to the head

coronal

pertaining to the vertical plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions

distal

situated away from the center of the body

dorsal

pertaining to the back or situated behind

lateral

situated at the side of a structure

medial

nearer to the middle of the body

posterior

pertaining to the back surface of the body/behind

prone

lying face down, flat on your belly

proximal

situated nearest to the center of the body

sagittal

vertical plane through the body dividing it into right and left portions

supine

lying face up, flat on your spine

transverse

horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions

ventral

pertaining to the belly or situated nearer the surface of the belly

abdominopelvic

pertaining to the abdomen and pelvis

cavity

a hollow space or body compartment

cranial

a hollow space or body compartment

cranium

the skull

diaphragm

muscular sheet separating he abdominal and thoracic cavities

quadrant

one quarter of a circle, one of four regions of the surface of the abdomen

spine

the vertebral column or short bony projection

thoracic

pertaining to the chest

thorax

part of the trunk between the abdomen and neck

umbilical

pertaining to the umbilici or the center of the abdomen

umbilicus

pit in the abdomen where the umbilical cord entered the fetus

cell

the smallest unit of the body capable of independent existence

conception

fertilization of the egg by sperm to form a zygote

cytology

study of the cell

fertilization

union of a male sperm and female egg

organ

structure with specific functions-made up of tissues

organelle

part of a cell made up of molecules

tissue

collection of similar cells

zygote

cell resulting from the union of sperm and egg

anabolism

the buildup of complex substances in the cell from simpler ones as a part of metabolism

catabolism

the breakdown of complex substances into simpler ones as a part of metabolism

hormone

chemical formed in one tissue or organ and carried by the blood to stimulate or inhibit a function of another tissue or organ

lipid

general term for all types of fatty compounds

metabolism

the constantly changing physical and chemical processes occurring in the cel that are the sum of anabolism and catabolism

protein

based on amino acids

RNA

the information carrier from DNA to the nucleus to an organelle to produce protein molecules

steroid

large family of chemical substances found in many drugs, hormones, anybody components

arthroscopy

visual examination of the interior of a joint

connective tissue

the supporting tissue of the body

cruciate

shaped like a cross

graft

transplantation of living tissue

histology

the study of the structure and function of cels, tissues, and organs

ligament

band of fibrous tissue connecting two structures

meniscus

disc of cartilage between the bones of a joint

patella (patellae)

thin, circular bone embedded in the patellar tendon in front of the knee joint, also called the knee cap

therapy

systematic treatment of a disease, dysfunction, disorder

capsule

fibrous tissue layer surrounding a joint or other structure

cartilage

nonvasuclar, firm connective tissue found mostly in joints

collagen

major protein of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone

matrix

substance that surrounds and protects cells, is manufactured by the cells, and holds them together

nutrient

a substance in food required for normal physiologic function

synovial

pertaining to the synovial membrane or fluid

tendon

fibrous band that connects muscle to bone

cardiovascular

pertaining to the heart and blood vessels

endocrine

a gland that produces an internal or hormonal substance

homeostasis

maintaining the stability of a system or the body's internal environment

integument

the skin organ system

lymph

clear fluid collected from body tissues and transported by lymph vessels to the venous circulation

nervous

pertaining to a nerve or the nervous system

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