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chemistry

Kw

The ionic product of water = [H+][OH-]

1 x10^-14

= [H+] [OH-] at 25°C

Increases

Change in Kw with increasing temperature.

pH scale

Measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution

pH

= log10[H+] where the square brackets indicate concentration in moles per litre.

[H+]

= 10^-pH

pOH

= - log10[OH-]

[OH-]

= 10^-pOH

14

= pH + pOH

Ka

The acid dissociation constant (an accurate measure of the extent to which an acid dissociates) = [H+] [A-] / [HA]

Strong

Acids which have relatively large values of Ka (>10^-2)

Weak

Acids which have small values of Ka (<10^-2)

Kb

The base dissociation constant (an accurate measure of the extent to which a base dissociates)

pH (weak acid)

= -log10 √(Ka x M)

pOH (weak base)

= -log10 √(Kb x M)

Methyl Orange

Indicator for Strong Acid - Weak Base Titration

Phenolphthalein

Indicator for Weak Acid - Strong Base Titration

3.1 - 4.4

pH range in which Methyl Orange changes colour

Red

Colour of Methyl Orange in Acid

Yellow

Colour of Methyl Orange in Base

8.3 - 10

pH range in which Phenolphthalein changes colour

Colourless

Colour of Phenolphthalein in Acid

Pink

Colour of Phenolphthalein in Base

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