He was born in 551 BC to a noble, but poor family; He was a brilliant scholar who studied ancient texts to learn the rules of conduct that had guided the ancestors. For years he wandered from court to court talking to rulers about how to govern. Later, he became a teacher and his wisdom became popular among students. He never wrote down his ideas but shared them with his students who collected them.
five key relationships/filial piety
ruler to subject, parent to child, husband to wife, elder brother to younger brother, and friend to friend(None of these relationships were equal except friend to friend.)
Purpose of Confucianism
Philosophy, or system of ideas, that was concerned with worldly goals, especially those of social order and good government.
No gods; not an organized religion, but a system of moral conduct based on the teachings of Confucius; kindness, love, and respect lead to a virtuous way of life.
Confucius' influence on government
He taught that it was a ruler's responsibility to provide good government. In return, the people would be respectful and loyal subjects. He said the best ruler was a virtuous one who led people by good example.
savanna climate zone
The Sahara is the world's largest desert.
barriers to movement in Africa
-Migration and trade occurred through it, but size and harsh terrain make movement difficult.
- The two main barriers that limit movement within Africa are its coastline because there are few good harbors, and the interior of Africa is a plateau so that as rivers approach the coast, rapids and cataracts (Large waterfalls) make movement difficult.
gold-salt trade, silent barter
The king of Ghana controlled the salt-gold trade routes across Africa, and collected tolls on all goods entering and leaving his land.
Kingdom of Ghana
The rulers of _____ united many farming villages and created the kingdom. The king controlled the salt-gold trade routes across Africa, and collected tolls on all goods entering and leaving his land.
How did Islam influence Ghana?
Muslims were employed as counselors and officials. Military technology and ideas about government were incorporated. Islam introduced written language, coinage, and business methods.
How did Ghana collapse?
______collapsed because the Almoravids tried to get control of ______'s trade routes. They took over eventually, but had trouble keeping control and _____ became part of Mali.
How did Mansa Musa build a strong kingdom?
He expanded Mali's border west to the Atlantic ocean and conquered cities to the north as well. He also established peace and order in Mali.
How did Islam influence Mansa Musa?
After converting to Islam, ___ ____ based Mali's system of justice on the Quran. He didn't force Islam on the people, the people of Mali still had religious freedom and tolerance.
How did Mali collapse?
It collapsed because in the 1400's dispute about succession broke out (i.e. who would be the next ruler). People left ____ and the empire shrunk.
Mansa Musa & his hajj; influence of Islam on Mali
His hajj established diplomatic and economic ties with other Muslim areas. He brought scholars, architects, and teachers from other areas that promoted Islamic education (there was a big Islamic university in Timbuktu). The people and the wealth that traveled with himincreased Mali's reputation as well.
How did Sonni Ali build a strong kingdom?
He built the largest state that had ever been in West Africa. He started to control trade routes to wealthy cities such as Timbuktu. He also did not adopt Islam.
How did Askia Muhammad build a strong kingdom?
He built a strong kingdom by expanding southern territory and improving the government. He set up government departments for farming, military and treasury. This made for an efficient government. These departments were run by officials who were appointed by the empire.
What was the influence of Islam on Askia Muhammad?
He made the hajj, which led to stronger ties with other Muslim areas. Scholars from Muslim lands traveled to his court and mosques and schools were set up in order to study the Quran.
How did Songhai collapse?
It collapsed because arguments about the next leader led to the empire having many different leaders (not between 1549 and1582 though). Eventually a civil war broke out between the different groups. Then Morocco's sultan, Ahmad al-Mansur, sent armies to ______ to capture their gold and salt mines. In 1591 Morocco, with the use of gunpowder weapons, captured ____. Morocco couldn't rule an empire across the Sahara, but _____ was gone for good.
Influences of Islam on West Africa
religion, education and decorative arts
Islam in West Africa
They were taught the 5 pillars of Islam, prayed in Arabic, worshipped in Mosques, went on the hajj, and were taught to think of all Muslims as though they were all part of one community.
Education in West Africa
Timbuktu was famous for its Islamic scholars. They had several universities; the most famous being the University of Sankore. Here, basic learning involved the Quran, Islamic studies, law, and literature. Once these subjects were mastered, students studied specific fields such as medicine, surgery, astronomy, math, physics, geography, art, and history. The highest degree took about 10 years of studying.
- Schools to teach children were also set up (more than 150 Qur'anic schools). Muslims also valued books. Since there were no printing presses, books were copied by hand. Mosques, universities, and individuals created large libraries.
How was calligraphy used?
Calligraphy was used to decorate objects like costumes, weapons and fans with the Arabic word for God (Allah). Verses from the Quran were written on amulets.
What did Muslim art and traditional West African art have in common?
Geometric patterns were used instead of drawing animals and people in all Muslim art. Traditional West African art also used lots of geometric patterns.
How did Islam influence clothing in West Africa?
Western Africans began to wear the Arabic robes (an outer layer of clothing with wide, long sleeves and a long skirt).
Mayan farming methods
*Lands were burned and cleared for farming
*Along river banks, farmers built raised fields so crops lifted above annual, or yearly, floodwaters.
Purpose of Mayan temples
•Priests performed rites and sacrifices;
•The temples were used as burial spots for rulers, nobles, and priests.
a) hieroglyphics - a form of writing/symbols in which the Mayans used to record history
b) priests as astronomers & mathematicians - developed by priests b/c they needed a way to accurately measure time (holding ceremonies at the correct moment)
c) calendars - priests developed a 365-day solar calendar as well as a 260-day ritual calendar
d) number system & concept of zero - priests invented a numbering system that included place values and the number concept of zero
•Archaeologists do not know for sure why Maya civilizations declined.
•Two possible theories:
Frequent warfare may have taken its toll on society.
Overpopulation could have led to over-farming and exhaustion of the soil.
Classes in Maya society
The Mayan society was structured like a pyramid. The ruler of each city-state was at the top of the social pyramid. The rest of Mayan society was organizes in a series of layers below him.
Mayan Nobles and Priests
They knew how to write and read; They served as officials, and oversaw the administration of the states; Nobles led armies during war time; Priests led rituals, offered sacrifices and foretold the future.
Mayan Merchants and Artisans
They carried out trade and made crafts; they traded with other city-states; artisans painted and made sculptures.
He had the highest authority in the state; He was considered a god-king
They worked hard on the land, grew crops to feed the people. They built pyramids-temples.
were not free; Performed manual labor for their owners; Some children were sold for money; Some people were made _____ as punishment for crimes.
The Sacred Round
Purpose: It was used to decide the best days to plant, hunt, cure, do battle, and perform religious ceremonies.
• Only priests cold "read" the hidden meaning of the ____ ______.
•It was a calendar based on 13 months of 20 days each. It had two cycles that worked together to identify a particular day. One cycle was made up of the numbers 1 to13. The other cycle was a set of 20 day names. Each of the day names represented a particular god. Every 260 days, a given combination of numbers and day names would occur.
Players tried to hit a solid rubber ball through a stone ring by using their leather-padded elbows, wrists, and hips.
•Two teams of nobles played.
• Slaves, land, and homes could be won and lost during a game. Members of the losing team were sacrificed and the captain of the defeated team was beheaded.
How Aztecs expanded their empire:
A combination of fierce conquests and alliances allowed ______ to expand the empire across most of Mexico. By 1517, there were 5-6 million people in the empire.
areas for farming, built in Lake Texcoco by putting timbers in the lake and filling in the areas with mud, rocks and reeds.
Aztec Social Classes
•Ruler - chosen from emperor's family (not an inherited position), had to acquire his own possessions, which caused warfare.
•Nobles & Priests - Nobles collected tribute from conquered people, served as judges and governors of conquered provinces.. Priests performed sacrifices and rituals to please the gods and prevent disasters/floods. Girls could become priestesses..
•Traders - had special role because they had exotic luxury goods from far away places.
•Peasants - 30% of ____ were peasants, were hired to perform jobs for nobles and farmed the chinampas.
•Slaves - were mostly prisoners of war or debtors. They could earn freedom by working off a debt, finishing punishment for a crime or freed when their master died.
•Warriors - could rise to noble status by performing well on the battlefie
1.Was the patron god of the Aztecs.
2.To help him rise each day, priests sacrificed hundreds of birds.
Aztec religious practices:
They believed that the gods provided a good harvest but sent earthquakes and floods if they were displeased. Priests offered sacrifices of birds (for Huitzilopochtli), warriors, corn, flowers & clothing. Young children were sacrificed to Tlaloc, the god of rain, they had to cry before sacrifice to bring tears from Tlaloc (rain).
Aztec Human Sacrifices
•The god Nanahuatzin sacrificed himself to become the sun.
•Prisoners of war were sacrificed each day to help the sun rise.
•Warriors were sacrificed because their blood was nourishing, women were beheaded to honor goddess of corn.
Decline of the Aztecs
Cortes landed on the east coast of Mexico and traveled to Tenochtitlan. The ruler, Moctezuma, thought he (Cortes) could be Quetzalcoatl and sent gifts of silver and gold. Moctezuma welcomed Cortes to the palace, gave them more silver and gold. Aztecs believe that Cortes drove his dagger into Moctezuma's back. With only 600 men, 16 horses and a few cannons, Cortes defeated the Aztecs. Spanish soldiers fleeing the city drowned in canals because they were weighed down by gold they were stealing. Spanish also brought smallpox, which eventually killed 80% of Central Americans.
structure & uses of the Inca road system
-- linked all parts of the empire (approx. 15,000 miles of road)
-- every 15-30 miles there were shelters for travelers to rest
-- running messenger stations placed every couple of miles along main roads
-- with relay system, messages traveled overt 250 miles a day
Use of terraces
-- irrigation system that went down the side of a mountain
--they were fields that looked like steps along side of the mountain
Incan religious practices:
--the Incas thought that Gods influenced their daily lives (like the Maya & Aztec)
-- thought Gods controlled parts of nature (weather God, rain giver)
-- sun god was the most important (like Aztecs)
--Why? they believed that the Emperor's family was descended from him
--the sun god was the god of agriculture which was the basis of Inca life
--sacrifices, such as throwing corn each day, encouraged the sun to appear each day
--human sacrifices only on most sacred occasion or in times of natural disaster
--children (girls) might be sacrificed at this time because the Incas believed that the purity of children honored the gods
Decline of the Incas
-1525 - emperor Huayana Capac suddenly died
- civil war broke out over which son would rule next
- the empire got weak just as Spanish invaders (Francisco Pizarro) were coming
•1532- Spaniard Pizarro arrived in Peru; Incan emperor Atahualpa had just won throne from his brother after civil war.
•Atahualpa refused to be a Spanish vassal & convert to Christianity
•Atahualpa captured by Pizarro; Pizaro asked for large ransom in exchange for Atahualpa
•Incas filled room with gold & silver, but Atahualpa choked to death anyway by Spaniards
•Spanish took over Inca because a) had better weapons & European diseases weakened Inca
•Spanish then gained land elsewhere in Incan empire (Ecuador & Chile)
•Arrived in Mexico's coast in 1519 w/ 600 men, 16 horses, a few cannons
•Assisted by Malinche, a Mexican woman who translated & advised for Cortes; she knew Mayan & Aztec languages, then learned Spanish
•Malinche told Cortes how the Aztecs had gained power by conquering other groups
•Captives were sacrificed & many conquered people hated the Aztecs
•Malinche helped Cortes create alliances with people conquered by the Aztecs to fight vs. the Aztecs
•Aztec emperor Moctezuma heard of Cortes' arrival & wondered if Cortes was Quetzalcoatl, a god-king who was expected to return to Mexico one day
•Moctezuma didn't know what to think of Cortes' arrival since he didn't know if Cortes was a god; Moctezuma sent turquoise, feathers, religious items to Cortes, but didn't want Cortes coming to Tenochtitlan(Aztec capital)
•Cortes wanted gold & silver (not religious items!) so he went to Tencoch.
•@ first, Moctezuma welcomed Cortes to Tenoch; this didn't last
•Spanish didn't like the Aztecs' religion & wanted to convert them to Christianity
•Spaniards driven from Tenochtitlan, but Moctezuma died mysteriously in the process
•In 1521 Cortes, Spaniards, Indian allies ruined Tenochtitlan; Spanish built Mexican City on this site later on
Reasons the Spanish were victorious over the Native Americans
•The Spanish conquistadors had better weapons, horses, and disease
•Spain had seized a lot of valuable items
•Native Americans worked in silver mines (Peru, Mexico) that provided $$ for Spain's empire
•1500s/1600s treasure ships with gold & silver Spain & Spanish Philippines, Spain = Europe's greatest power because of wealth.
Five Pillars of Islam
Code of behavior for followers of Islam. Includes Charity, Daily Prayer, Profession of Faith, Fasting during Ramadan, and a pilgrimage to Mecca called the hajj.
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. Islam is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad.
Islam's primary sacred text, direct words of allah
the pilgrimage to Mecca, which every adult Muslim is supposed to make at least once in his or her lifetime: the fifth of the Pillars of Islam.
Five Pillars of Islam
shahadah: proffession of faith (Allah is the only God), Salat: prayers, Sawm: Fasting, Zakat: giving of alms especially on Ramadan, Hajj: pilmgrimage to Mecca at least once in a muslim's life.