when an industrialized nation takes over a non- industrialized nation. This was because of the need for markets (people who will buy your industrialized goods) and materials (the things you make in factories like chairs or cars). The powerful industrialized nation dominated the political, cultural, and economic affairs of the non-industrialized nations they conquered.
Explain how industrialization causes imperialism
because industrialized nations needed natural resources to fuel their factories and markets to sell their goods. Also, tariffs prevented traded between industrialized nations which made the need for markets and materials that much more urgent.
Difference between colonization and imperialism
It lies in the technology of the time. Before the late 1800s, European nations tried to colonize Africa, but did not get very far because of their lack of industrial transportation, communication, disease prevention, or weaponry. They only conquered the outskirts of continents. In short, colonization only controlled the ports while imperialism controlled the country. With imperialism--occurring shortly after the beginning of the Industrial Revolution--the steamship, train, inoculations, telegraph, and machine gun allowed European countries to push throughout continents, completely take over, rule the natives, and transform their culture.
How does Africa's geography contribute to imperialism
Because Africa's geography was almost like a cowboy hat, with the brim the low lands of the coast until jutting suddenly into high, impassable mountain ranges in the middle of the continent, the high point of the hat. The Congo with all it's mineral wealth was situated at the top of the cowboy hat. Once the proper technology came around and European nations were able to infiltrate deeper into the continent, there was a rush for Africa. Another way Africa's geography influenced imperialism was because of its mineral riches and raw materials: diamonds, gold, and oil. This was especially true in the central and southern parts of the continent, and once imperialism came about, there was a rush to colonize these parts.
How it contributes to imperialism: machine gun
It allowed European nations to easily conquer the native Africans equipped with much more primitive and simple weapons. Spears could not match up well them. This allowed European nations to have near total control over African natives, often exploiting them. For example, Leopold was able to easily control these native Africans and take their rubber, mostly as a result of the difference in technology of weapons.
How it contributes to imperialism: train
It gave European nations easy travel across difficult terrain. Before the Industrial Revolution, European nations had trouble walking through the high, rough terrain of middle Africa. But things changed with industrialization; the invention allowed goods to be transported over almost any geography .
How it contributes to imperialism: telegraph
Invented during the Industrial Revolution, it allowed Europeans in Africa to instantly communicate with government officials in Europe, and receive advice on what to do in certain situations. For the first time, Europeans were able instantly to relay information with each other all over the world now, and led to the possibility of "imperializing" all over the world. This helped commanders maneuver their armies, as well as newspapers write/publish their stories.
How it contributes to imperialism: quinine
Previously, diseases such as malaria devastated Europeans who had never been exposed to it before. Once protected via this invention, Europeans could travel to all parts of Africa with no fear of infection. Also, a factor of the Industrial Revolution in this was how these inoculations were able to be mass-produced, and could be distributed to all soldiers, which previously would not have been the case if not for the IR and new methods of production, such as the assembly line.
How it contributes to imperialism: steam ship
Previously, sailboat were unreliable, because weather (wind) determined whether it would sail or not. With coal fueling ships, transportation over water became easier, more accessible, and reliable. England would use them to transport goods into and out of Africa, such as the raw materials. Without this improved method of water transportation, European nations would not have been able to ship soldiers and goods into and out of Africa.
Relying solely on one's own ability. Not wanting to rely on others for raw materials, markets, or products, industrialized nations took over non-industrialized nations because of this mindset. It was a "go it alone" strategy where high tariffs prevented international trade and market saturation was always a risk.
When you make more than you can sell. With industrialization, more products were made than ever before. A balancing act took place between making too much so that no one would want to buy what was made. This led to the idea of imperialism and forcing conquered people to buy the products of the conquering nation. Therefore, European countries "imperialized" African countries, India, China, and large parts of the world to have outlet markets to sell their products to. Since the British were introducing their products in India, they shut down all Indian factories to eliminate any competition.
How is self-sufficiency different from market saturation
One is doing things for yourself and not relying on other countries, while the other is a result of making more things than you can sell. Both came as a result of industrialization.
The things used to make industrial good or to fuel industrial economies, such as coal or oil. Other goods used in trade and to make products were timber, cotton, rubber, gold, copper, and spices. Getting these things was a core motivation for imperialism. Their desire for self-sufficiency was directly related to the raw materials they desired.
Taxes on imported goods so as to make countries self-sufficient. Example: Japan wants to sell car to U.S., U.S. puts 100% tariff on Japan's car so Japan's car is $20, 000 & U.S. same car is $10, 000= people buy cheaper car (one made at home) therefore tariff= making you self-sufficient but it is a form of economic warfare as it destroys competition and markets. Desire to be self-sufficient means high tariffs = no competition and leads to market saturation
What were the roles of colonies during imperialism
Enrich the mother country! Get markets and materials! Raw materials were in high demand in Europe because of the starting of the IR and the need for self-sufficiency. European nations wanted colonies so that they could be in control of the products and materials and not depend on anyone else. The natives in "imperialized" regions were often treated as non-citizens, mainly because of the color of their skin; so their only role was to help obtain the raw materials for the Europeans. For example, in the Belgian Congo, the natives' job was basically to mine rubber for the Belgians. It was slave labor.
What happens when market saturation takes hold in your country
Companies go broke, people lose jobs, and an economic depression can result. To solve this, you need to search for new markets. In search for new markets, you end up conquering new lands for people to buy your excess goods. This is imperialism.
A feeling of pride for your country based on having a common language, culture, and history. Napoleon invented it and spread it throughout Europe, which then spread throughout the world. When countries are high on it, they feel like they are the most powerful country in the world. This encourages imperialism. In intense forms, it leads to racism.
Napoleon's role with Nationalism
He made laws that said that everyone was equal and as he conquered Europe he spread this ideology. This spirit carried over for the rest of the century throughout Europe, with each nation pushing for it to have the most land in Africa, the most mineral-rich land, etc. The irony of course was that although he was greeted initially as a savior as he unified Europe with a common law (Code Napoleon), he was later repulsed by that law European countries rallied around nationalism to kick him out.
Immigration and imperialism
As factory jobs dwindled because of market saturation, people went to where the jobs were in colonies overseas. For example, if jobs were scarce in England, people could move to South Africa, where they would still be loyal to Britain and would still be contributing to their country.
Years for largest waves of immigration in history
1870-1914 (same years as the Age of Imperialism)
How are Gandhi, Cecil Rhodes, Leopold II, and Sepoys all examples of the waves of immigration during Imperialism
All were impacted by immigration. Gandhi himself immigrated from India to England, to South Africa, and back to India. Cecil Rhodes immigrated from England to southern Africa. King Leopold's Belgians immigrated to the Congo to colonize, changing the lives of the natives forever, along with the future of the Congo. Sepoys were Indian soldiers serving the British Empire who were sent around the world to suppress revolutions.
It was an effort to convert new people to Christianity, to "civilize" the "savages" they took over. On the plus side, they brought education, hygiene, sanitation, and health care but there was racism, war, and exploitation which also had a terrible impact on the culture and health of the people who lived there. This led to an identity crisis for many conquered people because for many their cultures and traditions were wiped out. More importantly, it destroyed jobs and ways of life (and often the lives) of native people.
Give examples of Missionary Motives at play during the Raj
Because England tried to take over India, they had to figure out a way to govern 1,000,000,000 people. To do this, they decided to teach them their government; in other words, teach them the Enlightenment: Hobbes, Locke, Smith and Rousseau, etc. and how the British govern. Also, the British built schools, roads, RR tracks, and hospitals--all an effort to "civilize the natives."
Europe's scientific racism, it was a justification for imperialism. By applying Darwin's ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest to political situations, Europeans explained that white people had the technology because they were smarter which gave them justification to take over these countries. "Natural selection" (Darwin's concept) was just a "natural" process for them to take over those who were not "superior". This was an after-the-fact justification, something that you say after you do something serious like take over another country.
How "debt-as-justification-for-imperialism" leads to tribal wars and chaos
Who is the African leader who took the loans? Probably not your leader. He may control areas A, B, & C, but the Europeans wrongly say that he controls A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, and K. So a lot of people that get taken over who had nothing to do with that one African leader's mistake. The newly colonized have deep resentment. Like modern homeownership. Banker gives the loan, house is collateral. But in this instance, if you can't pay the loan, the bank doesn't just take your house; the bank takes the entire neighborhood as payment. Lot of angry people on the streets. Dig?
Africa as Cowboy Hat
Middle of the hat is mountainous (high); brim/outskirts is low. Before industrialization there was no technology to make the way into the continent--up the hat. Geographic isolation. Once trains are invented, Africa is discovered to have diamonds and gold and is fair game and the race is on.
Why an Imperial Race to Take over Africa?
In 1880, Europeans discover that Africa is the most mineral rich continent in the world. Europeans race to get the raw materials and markets. This inspires the Berlin Conference and creation of the Free State of the Congo.
He went to Africa to seek his fortune after being out-casted in England, possibly due to his alleged homosexuality. He built a corporate monopoly of the diamonds in South Africa with the De Beers Mining Company. This made him extremely wealthy and powerful in South Africa. Rhodes then became the prime minister of the Cape Colony, where he forced African rulers to accept British rule, gaining much land and power for England. This shows how Rhodes remained loyal to Britain. His conflict with the Dutch caused the Boer War.
Why Cecil Rhodes wants South Africa?
because of the extraordinary amount of diamonds found there and because he was an outcast in England and wants a fresh start. After discovering diamonds, Rhodes started the De Beers Mining Company, where he gained his wealth, reputation, and influence. A Napoleon-like personality, he did not know how to stop conquering and so he went to war against the Dutch (Boer War) which killed his spirit.
Took place in 1884-1885, it drew the political boundaries of modern Africa and determined which nation could colonize which land in Africa. Belgium's King Leopold was one of the most active members at the meeting and there he created the Free State of the Congo. The Europeans had no idea about the many tribes that existed in Africa, and the problems that existed between them. They simply drew lines on a map, leading to much conflict in the continent to this very day, so that they could secure cheap materials and captive markets.
Treaty of Versailles
It was similar to the Berlin Conference as it drew boundaries that would eventually lead to tribal and religious wars. Made in 1919, it was written by Britain and France so that they could get cheap oil for themselves. Many tribes in the Middle East today still fight each other from when they were grouped together by Europeans in 1919. Lines on a map were drawn with no regard for the tribes and the problems that would come. The nations of Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, and Lebanon were created from this treaty.
Dutch South Africans who initially settled there in the 1600's. They thought of themselves as God's chosen people as they thrived in South Africa (same climate in the Dutch Netherlands). They would eventually despise the British as they eventually conquer Dutch lands.
It was fought between the British and the Dutch settlers. It started after England (Rhodes) discovered how much gold and diamonds there were in South Africa, and how wealthy they could become from owning it. Afrikaners (The Dutch) think they're "chosen people" b/c they're pioneers in developing their land and to Christianize the natives. Apartheid would be established later in South Africa because of the war and this would influence Nelson Mandela.
Democracy for white's only. After the Boer War, a democracy for whites only was created. Over time, a system of severe discrimination and segregation was created to suppress native-Black Africans, something that Mandela would eventually overcome. It was spearheaded by Mandela 27 year non-violent protest against the government. Still today, it is a difficult struggle for S. Africans b/c even today so many are so poor & those from European descent are far more wealthy
Difference between Gandhi and Mandela
One consistently supported non-violent non-cooperation. The other did approve of select uses of violence, as he did not universally approve of "turning the other cheek."
an educated lawyer living in South Africa, he was one of the main voices against apartheid and has since become a world-wide symbol for justice and peace. Using non-violent methods (though not entirely) of protests learned from Gandhi and his movement against the British in India and similar to how Gandhi fasted, Mandela refused to leave prison (27 years) until apartheid ended. In 1994, Mandela became the first black president of South Africa, a remarkable accomplishment. He was later given the Nobel Peace Prize for his leadership.
A Belgian ruler in charge of the Congo in central Africa, he was one of the most ruthless leaders in history. Rubber was in high demand all over the world as countries needed it to make tires for cars and bicycles. The name "bloody rubber" was given to the extraction of rubber in the Congo, as many Africans were killed by Leopold in the process. If one refused to work, he would cut off an arm, hand, etc. and other harsh penalties. Eventually, when the Belgian government and the rest of the world learned what was going on, Leopold was removed from his position, but mistreatment of Africans continued throughout Africa. He wrecked the Congo.
"Free State of Congo"
Ironically, this is the name given by King Leopold. It was far from free. Natives were treated brutally by the Belgians. Today, this region is named the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as the country tries to overcome its past and rebuild. It is neither democratic nor free as we understand those terminologies.
France's legacy on countries it imperialized
They exported the French Revolution, which was a disaster. Because the natives in these countries were not left with a solid framework in government--because the French Revolution made France so unstable compared to England--civil wars were more likely in their colonies and problems such as corruption, poverty, and hunger have often persisted.
Britain's legacy on countries it imperialized
If they colonized your country, even though it wasn't fair, you still got a better deal than France and Belgium because the British did a better job taking care of their areas, and they definitely provided the most stable governments out of the three possibilities. Since Britain has a strong government backed up by the ideas of the Enlightenment from John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, we know that whatever countries it imperialized will benefit more so than those conquered by Belgium or France. Yet, Britain took away native peoples' rights and reset boundaries. Nigeria was colonized by Britain and they are not doing so well; i.e. Shell in Nigeria. There was no guarantee that you're being colonized by Britain would lead to a stable government. The odds were just better than being colonized by anyone else.
Belgium's legacy on countries it imperialized
The most visible effect of their style of imperialism can be seen in the Democratic Republic of the Congo today. While a government exists in name, it is arguably the most dysfunctional in the world, corrupt and unstable with scarce food and clean water. The country has lousy infrastructure and is struggling to become technologically advanced. This is a result of King Leopold's leadership, since he dug them a hole they are still trying to climb out of.
Pre-IR, it was crucial for the wellbeing of most people as it preserved meat, which was in short supply. Remember, most people were starving (by today's standards) before the IR and spices meant survival. So people went to India for thousands of years to get the spices that they needed to preserve the meat that needed by stay healthy.
Britain realized that they needed it to create material from their textile mills. England= largest colonial empire in history- looked strong, but beneath appearance= cash- get $ by getting investors to finance ventures in India (Joint Stock Company) so you get the material to furnish mills in England to make $ that you want
-1860s: cotton from U.S. unavailable due to Civil War so India= significant source of raw cotton for British textile factories
Joint Stock Company
A company financed by stockholders, or investors. They are a game changer, because it was no longer about one person having to finance a company. Now investors can finance your dreams and they take a proportional percentage of the profits. As they grew more rich than the countries they operated in, they came to become as powerful (or more so) than nations. Example, Shell in Nigeria making more money than Nigeria's entire economy.
India before the Raj and the British East India Company
Hundreds of languages and tribes and numerous religions made India a non-political-entity as it lacked a common language, culture, or history to unite the entire region. It was simply to diverse and populated and geographically large to be united.
British East India Company
It was the joint stock company which controlled India before the Raj. It saw an opportunity to make money in India by monopolizing the spice trade. With the rise of the IR, they controlled their cotton trade. Changing Indian society, many Indians believed that "IT" was destroying their culture and economy. After the Sepoy Mutiny, the Raj began.
Seven Years War
The Seven Years' War was the most expensive war in history, and involved many countries, including Britain, France, Spain and many other world powers. It was fought in North America, Africa, India and the Philippines. This war took place from 1756-1763, and is one of the most impactful wars of the last 300 years. As a result of it, England takes over India.
A reformer and the first to believe that Indians should have the same rights as Europeans. An interesting aspect of his life was how he worked for the British East India Company. After seeing how much money was being stolen by the British, he took the side of the Indians. This is a perfect example of the identity crisis many Indians faced, an Indian working for a British company. Roy opened many schools and wrote texts on the subject. One of Gandhi's main influences, as it was his ideas that Gandhi put into practice in during his protests.
Compare Roy to Gandhi
Think about it: similar education. One thought of himself as increasingly more English, that India would improve itself when it became more like the English. The other thought that Indians would become free of the British when they showed the moral character to be worthy of freedom: by being truly Indian not British.
Role of Locke and Smith in Indian Independence
The British believed that if they introduced the Indians to the teachings of the Enlightenment, that because of the color of their skin, the Indians would not be able to apply these teachings. They thought that exposing the Indians to this Western style of government would make it easier for the British to rule them. They did not think that the Indians would want this kind of life for themselves.
Indian soldiers fighting for the British and who fought throughout the world for the British Empire. They fought in WWI and WWII for the British crown. This is one of the most famous examples of India's identity crisis; Sepoys were fighting for the British but still loyal to India by their language, culture, etc.
It occurred after the cartridges in their guns were greased with pig and cow fat, which goes against their Hindu and Muslim beliefs of the Sepoys. The war was a disaster for both sides, horribly bloody. Three outcomes: the end of the British East India Company, the installment of the Raj, and eventually a paradigm shift in how the Indians will strategize to overthrow the British.
Pork Fat Cartridges
The spark that started the Sepoy Mutiny. The new British rifles were greased by pig and cow fat, which goes against Hindu and Muslim Sepoys who were educated in the ways of the Enlightenment. This angered them; it was the last straw; they would no longer serve the British. The Sepoys lose this war.
Raj and its impact on India
It was the English government controlling India during Imperialism. The Sepoy Mutiny showed England that a Joint Stock Company cannot govern a country alone. From then on, England directly ruled India and began to industrialize it by building railroads, canals, telegraphs, schools, and hospitals to unite the country and to give India a common sense of nationalism. It combined the many languages and religions into a few to create an identity.
Indian National Congress
It was created after the Sepoy Mutiny, an organization to create an independence movement through non-violence. Irony: the liberation movement against Britain was inspired by British nationalism. It was assembled by English-speaking Indians, most of whom were Hindu They did this because they wanted fairness and democracy for all.
It means "made at home." Indians boycotted all British products and instead made "homespun," handmade clothing made at home, and simply said "no" to the British. Their goal was to make it too expensive for the British to stay in India. This form of non-violent protest was very effective. India gained a sense of nationalism through nonviolence, and made Indians realize that when they unite, they can defeat the British.
After studying in Britain and working as a lawyer in South Africa, he came to India in 1915 to take on the problem India was having with the British. From 1915 to 1947, when India gained Independence, Gandhi worked to achieve independence from the British for India. He achieved this through nonviolent protest, such as boycotts, fasting, and marches. India reached independence in 1947, one year before his assassination in 1948.
Gandhi basic ideas
Defy evil through non-violent non-cooperation. He knew that if India was to use violence, it would lose because England was more militarily powerful as it lost the Sepoy Mutiny. He preached-and-practiced that slavery/imperialism exists because the slave believes his master, because one lost one's sense of dignity. So he convinced Indians to believe that they will be free when "they prove worthy of it." This later impacted MLK and Nelson Mandela.
Born in 1869 in India, as a young man, he went to England to study law, and worked as a lawyer in South Africa. Early in his life he thought of himself as British, even while fighting for equal rights in South Africa. In 1915, he returned to India to take on fight for independence from Britain. Gandhi realized that the way to achieve independence was to use non- violence, achieved by fasting, marches, and boycotts, such as the Swadeshi movement. Eventually India gained independence in 1947, one year before Gandhi's assassination 1948. Today, Gandhi is seen as a symbol of peace throughout the world. He had lasting impacts on the world, such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela in South Africa.
Say NO to evil. He did so by Swadeshi and his famous Salt March. Gandhi was able to spare India of useless and destructive war by rebelling in a peaceful way. By doing so, England could not make the money they needed to maintain their empire and left India. The result, India is the largest democracy in the world. Amazing.
Gandhi's impact on Mandela, MLK, and present day leaders
He is the father of one of the largest democracy in history: India. This has a direct relationship to us today because he inspired Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement and he inspired Nelson Mandela. He used his integrity as the weapon against injustice, non-violently non-cooperating with evil.
Explain how Gandhi's ideas are a game changer in world history
because he discovered a new way to solve political problems: non-violent non-cooperation, to organize people to non-violently break unjust laws so as to draw attention to the injustice, so as to encourage the government to change. Also, he inspired many leaders such as Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, Obama, almost anyone (i.e. conservative, liberal, libertarian, etc)who leads a democratic campaign to change the government or change a law.
How to determine a country's stability by reading a map
The earlier the country achieves independence + the better the parent country (i.e. England over France; France over Belgium) = the nation's stability. This is an approach to understanding maps not a tried-and-true law.
Columbus sails west to get to India and fails (gets to Cuba thinking it was India).
Portugal gets to India by all water route: Vasco Da Gama
England controls India by defeating French in Seven Years War
Four biggies: 1) Publication of "On the Wealth of Nations;" 2) beginning of mass production of James Watt's steam engine; 3) writing of the Declaration of Independence; 4) beginning of the American Revolution (thanks to the help of king Louis 16th of France).
Napoleon leaves power
Industrial Revolution begins
Cecil Rhodes discovers diamonds in South Africa
Imperialism in its prime
World War I - marks the end of the height of Imperialism. After World War II Imperialism will begin to end.
Treaty of Versailles
World War II ends and soon thereafter so will imperialism (because the Imperialistic powers--Japan, England, France, Germany, Italy, etc. have been so weakened by the war and can't control their colonies)
India gains independence from England via non-violent revolution
Congo, Nigeria, and Ivory Coast are liberated (not a great year. Governments are unstable).
Mandela elected President of South Africa