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The term anaerobic means 1)
A) without ATP.
B) without bacteria.
C) without O2.
D) without CO2.
E) with O2.

C) without O2.

Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true? 2)
A) Photosynthesis occurs in mitochondria and in chloroplasts.
B) Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria.
C) Neither cellular respiration nor photosynthesis occurs in either mitochondria or chloroplasts.
D) Cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria and in chloroplasts.
E) Photosynthesis occurs in mitochondria, and cellular respiration occurs in chloroplasts.

B) Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria.

How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration? 3)
A) They produce ATP.
B) They store it as thermal energy.
C) They store it in molecules of carbon dioxide.
D) The energy is coupled to oxygen.
E) They produce glucose

A) They produce ATP

The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy
conversions, some energy is
4)
A) destroyed when the chemical bonds of glucose are made.
B) created in the form of heat.
C) lost in the form of heat.
D) used to create light.
E) saved in the chemical bonds of water, CO2 and O2.

C) lost in the form of heat.

Respiration ________, and cellular respiration ________. 5)
A) produces ATP . . . is gas exchange
B) produces glucose . . . is gas exchange
C) is gas exchange . . . produces ATP
D) produces glucose . . . produces oxygen
E) uses glucose . . . produces glucose

C) is gas exchange . . . produces ATP

Which of the following are products of cellular respiration? 6)
A) oxygen and glucose
B) glucose and carbon dioxide
C) oxygen and energy to make ATP
D) energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide
E) oxygen and carbon dioxide

D) energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide

Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false? 7)
A) Cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide.
B) Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step.
C) Cellular respiration consumes glucose.
D) Cellular respiration releases heat.
E) Cellular respiration produces water.

B) Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step.

The overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is 8)
A) 5 CO2 + 6 H2O 􀀏 C5H12O6 + 6 O2 + energy.
B) C6H12O6 + 6 O2 􀀏 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.
C) C6H12O12 + 3 O2 􀀏 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.
D) C5H12O6 + 6 O2 􀀏 5 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.
E) C6H12O6 + energy 􀀏 6 CO2+ 6 H2O + 6 O2.

B) C6H12O6 + 6 O2 􀀏 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.

A kilocalorie is defined as 9)
A) the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C.
B) the quantity of food used to maintain normal bodily functions.
C) the quantity of water heat needed to solubilize 1 g of glucose.
D) the quantity of food consumed during a given type of exercise.
E) the quantity of glucose needed to increase the body temperature by 1°C.

A) the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C.

During cellular respiration, the energy in glucose 10)
A) is carried by electrons.
B) is used to manufacture glucose.
C) becomes stored in molecules of ammonia.
D) can be used to oxidize NADH.
E) is released all at once.

A) is carried by electrons.

During redox reactions, 11)
A) protons from one molecule replace the electrons lost from another molecule.
B) electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance.
C) a substance that gains electrons is said to be oxidized.
D) the loss of electrons from one substance is called reduction.
E) the reduction of a substance does not need to be coupled to the oxidation of another
substance.

B) electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance.

Oxidation is the ________, and reduction is the ________. 12)
A) loss of electrons . . . gain of electrons
B) gain of protons . . . loss of protons
C) gain of oxygen . . . loss of oxygen
D) gain of electrons . . . loss of electrons
E) loss of oxygen . . . gain of oxygen

A) loss of electrons . . . gain of electrons

In biological systems, an important enzyme involved in the regulation of redox reactions is 13)
A) ATP.
B) glucose.
C) dehydrogenase.
D) water.
E) oxygen.

C) dehydrogenase.

During cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of electron carrier molecules. Which of
the following statements about this process is true?
14)
A) The carrier molecules are found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
B) Molecular oxygen is eventually oxidized by the electrons to form water.
C) Molecular oxygen is reduced when it accepts electrons and forms water.
D) The electrons move from carriers that have more affinity for them to carriers that have less
affinity for them.
E) The electrons release large amounts of energy each time they are transferred from one carrier
to another.

C) Molecular oxygen is reduced when it accepts electrons and forms water.

During which of the following phases of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation
take place?
15)
A) the citric acid cycle
B) glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
C) "grooming" of pyruvate
D) oxidative phosphorylation
E) glycolysis

B) glycolysis and the citric acid cycle

Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism? 16)
A) oxidative phosphorylation
B) chemiosmosis
C) the citric acid cycle
D) electron transport chain
E) glycolysis

E) glycolysis

As a result of glycolysis there is a net gain of ________ ATPs. 17)
A) 1 B) 36 C) 2 D) 0 E) 4

C) 2

How many molecules of NADH are produced during glycolysis? 18)
A) 2 B) 3 C) 8 D) 6 E) 4

A) 2

Which of the following is a result of glycolysis? 19)
A) conversion of glucose to two three-carbon compounds
B) a net loss of two ATPs per glucose molecule
C) production of CO2
D) conversion of NADH to NAD+
E) conversion of FAD to FADH2

A) conversion of glucose to two three-carbon compounds

Pyruvate 20)
A) is a six-carbon molecule.
B) is the molecule that starts the citric acid cycle.
C) forms at the end of glycolysis.
D) is the end product of oxidative phosphorylation.
E) is the end product of chemiosmosis.

Which of the following statements regarding the chemical grooming of pyruvate is false? 21)
A) Each pyruvate loses a carbon atom, which is released as CO2.
B) Two molecules of pyruvate are each converted into two-carbon molecules joined to a
coenzyme A molecule.
C) Two pyruvate molecules together contain less chemical energy than was found in the original
glucose molecule.
D) Each pyruvate molecule has a CO2 added and then joins with an NADH.
E) The pyruvate molecules are oxidized and two NAD+ are reduced.

Which of the following statements regarding the chemical grooming of pyruvate is false? 21)
A) Each pyruvate loses a carbon atom, which is released as CO2.
B) Two molecules of pyruvate are each converted into two-carbon molecules joined to a
coenzyme A molecule.
C) Two pyruvate molecules together contain less chemical energy than was found in the original
glucose molecule.
D) Each pyruvate molecule has a CO2 added and then joins with an NADH.
E) The pyruvate molecules are oxidized and two NAD+ are reduced.

D) Each pyruvate molecule has a CO2 added and then joins with an NADH

The end products of the citric acid cycle include all of the following except 22)
A) pyruvate. B) CO2. C) ATP. D) FADH2. E) NADH.

A) pyruvate.

The function of coenzyme A in the citric acid cycle is most like 23)
A) a hamster in its exercise wheel, running quickly but not getting anywhere.
B) a limousine driver dropping off a couple at the school prom.
C) throwing a baited hook into a lake and catching a fish.
D) a recycling company, collecting paper and using it to manufacture new products.
E) a kid jumping up and down on a trampoline.

B) a limousine driver dropping off a couple at the school prom.

At the end of the citric acid cycle, most of the energy remaining from the original glucose is stored
in
24)
A) pyruvate. B) ATP. C) FADH2. D) CO2. E) NADH.

E) NADH.

During chemiosmosis, 25)
A) ATP is synthesized when H+ ions move through a protein port provided by ATP synthase.
B) energy is generated by coupling exergonic reactions with other exergonic reactions.
C) a concentration gradient is generated when large numbers of H+ ions are passively
transported from the matrix of the mitochondrion to the mitochondrion's intermembrane
space.
D) energy is released as H+ ions move freely across mitochondrial membranes.
E) H+ ions serve as the final electron acceptor.

A) ATP is synthesized when H+ ions move through a protein port provided by ATP synthase.

Which of the following statements about the inner mitochondrial membrane is false? 26)
A) Electron carriers are associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane.
B) A gradient of H+ exists across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
C) The inner mitochondrial membrane is involved in chemiosmosis.
D) The inner mitochondrial membrane plays a role in the production of pyruvate.
E) ATP synthase is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane

D) The inner mitochondrial membrane plays a role in the production of pyruvate.

The mitochondrial cristae are an adaptation that 27)
A) helps mitochondria divide during times of greatest cellular respiration.
B) increases the space for more copies of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase
complexes.
C) allows other ions (like Na+) to build up when H+ ions are not available.
D) carefully encloses the DNA housed within the mitochondrial matrix.
E) permits the expansion of mitochondria as oxygen accumulates in the mitochondrial matrix

B) increases the space for more copies of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase
complexes.

A mutant protist is found in which some mitochondria lack an inner mitochondrial membrane.
Which of the following pathways would be completely disrupted in these mitochondria?
28)
A) biosynthesis
B) oxidative phosphorylation
C) the citric acid cycle
D) glycolysis
E) alcoholic fermentation

B) oxidative phosphorylation

By-products of cellular respiration include 29)
A) NADH and ATP.
B) carbon dioxide and ATP.
C) FADH2 and NADH.
D) carbon dioxide and water.
E) oxygen and heat.

D) carbon dioxide and water.

In the electron transport chain, the final electron acceptor is 30)
A) an oxygen atom.
B) ADP.
C) a molecule of carbon dioxide.
D) ATP.
E) a molecule of water.

A) an oxygen atom.

Which of the following statements about the energy yield of aerobic respiration is false? 31)
A) Glycolysis and the "grooming" of pyruvate together produce more NADH per glucose
molecule than does the citric acid cycle.
B) Less than 50% of the chemical energy available in glucose is converted to ATP energy.
C) Each FADH2 molecule yields 2 ATP molecules and each NADH molecule generates 3 ATP
molecules.
D) Most of the ATP derived during aerobic respiration results from oxidative phosphorylation.
E) Oxidative phosphorylation resulting from 1 glucose molecule may yield 32—34 ATP
molecules.

A) Glycolysis and the "grooming" of pyruvate together produce more NADH per glucose
molecule than does the citric acid cycle.

Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle must occur ________ time(s) per glucose molecule. 32)
A) 4 B) 3 C) 2 D) 5 E) 1

C) 2

The energy yield from the complete aerobic breakdown of a single molecule of glucose 33)
A) increases as the supply of oxygen increases.
B) is always 38 ATP.
C) is less than the yield from anaerobic respiration.
D) can vary with the mechanism used to shuttle NADH electrons into the mitochondrion.
E) is equivalent to the yield from alcoholic fermentation.

D) can vary with the mechanism used to shuttle NADH electrons into the mitochondrion

Which of the following processes produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose oxidized? 34)
A) All produce approximately the same amount of ATP per molecule of glucose.
B) anaerobic respiration
C) lactic acid fermentation
D) aerobic respiration
E) alcoholic fermentation

D) aerobic respiration

In fermentation, ________ is ________. 35)
A) NAD+ . . . oxidized
B) NADH . . . oxidized
C) pyruvate . . . oxidized
D) NADH . . . reduced
E) ethanol . . . oxidized

B) NADH . . . oxidized

When an organism such as a yeast lives by fermentation, it converts the pyruvate from glycolysis
into a different compound, such as alcohol. Why doesn't it secrete the pyruvate directly?
36)
A) The conversion yields one ATP per pyruvate molecule.
B) The conversion yields one FADH2 per pyruvate molecule.
C) The conversion yields one NADH per pyruvate molecule.
D) A buildup of pyruvate in the surrounding environment would be too toxic.
E) The conversion is needed to regenerate the NAD+ consumed during glycolysis.

E) The conversion is needed to regenerate the NAD+ consumed during glycolysis

Muscle soreness associated with strenuous exercise is at least partly due to 37)
A) the excess buildup of carbon monoxide due to inefficient respiration.
B) an excess of ATP that builds up during vigorous exercise.
C) the large amount of carbon dioxide that builds up in the muscle.
D) the accumulation of alcohol from anaerobic respiration.
E) the presence of lactate produced during fermentation in muscle cells.

E) the presence of lactate produced during fermentation in muscle cells

Some friends are trying to make wine in their basement. They've added yeast to a sweet grape juice
mixture and have allowed the yeast to grow. After several days they find that sugar levels in the
grape juice have dropped, but there's no alcohol in the mixture. The most likely explanation is that
38)
A) the mixture needs more sugar, because yeast need a lot of energy before they can begin to
produce alcohol.
B) the mixture needs less oxygen, because yeast only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen.
C) the mixture needs more oxygen, because yeast need oxygen to break down sugar and get
enough energy to produce alcohol.
D) the yeast used the alcohol as a carbon source.
E) the mixture needs less sugar, because high sugar concentrations stimulate cellular respiration,
and alcohol is not a by-product of cellular respiration.

B) the mixture needs less oxygen, because yeast only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen.

In yeast cells, 39)
A) lactic acid is produced during glycolysis.
B) alcohol is produced during the citric acid cycle.
C) alcohol is produced after glycolysis.
D) glucose is produced during photosynthesis.
E) lactic acid is produced during anaerobic respiration.

C) alcohol is produced after glycolysis.

Which of the following statements regarding glycolysis is false? 40)
A) Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it is the most efficient
metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis.
B) Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because glucose is the universal
substrate for glycolysis.
C) Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it is not located in a
membrane-bound organelle.
D) Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it occurs universally.
E) Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it does not require oxygen.

A) Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it is the most efficient
metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis.

To obtain energy from starch and glycogen, the body must begin by 41)
A) removing one glucose at a time with a condensation reaction.
B) hydrolyzing both starch and glycogen to glucose.
C) removing nitrogen atoms from both molecules.
D) converting both starch and glycogen to fatty acids.
E) hydrolyzing the starch to glucose and the glycogen to amino acids.

B) hydrolyzing both starch and glycogen to glucose.

When proteins are used as a source of energy for the body, the proteins 42)
A) are converted mainly into intermediates of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle.
B) are hydrolyzed to fatty acids and converted to acetyl CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle.
C) are converted into glucose molecules, which are fed into glycolysis.
D) are hydrolyzed to glycerols and then converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, which is fed
into glycolysis.
E) are hydrolyzed to their constituent amino acids; electrons are stripped from the amino acids
and passed to the electron transport chain.

A) are converted mainly into intermediates of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle.

When a cell uses fatty acid for aerobic respiration, it first hydrolyzes fats to 43)
A) sugars and glycerol.
B) glycerol and amino acids.
C) glycerol and fatty acids.
D) fatty acids and sugars.
E) sugars and amino acids.

C) glycerol and fatty acids.

If you consume 1 g of each of the following, which will yield the most ATP? 44)
A) glucose B) sucrose C) fat D) starch E) protein

C) fat

Which of the following organisms can make organic molecules from water and carbon dioxide? 45)
A) crayfish
B) bear
C) honeybee
D) mushroom
E) wheat

E) wheat

The glycolytic pathway will ________ after a large meal and ________ during a long period of
exercise.
46)
A) slow down . . . slow down
B) slow down . . . speed up
C) speed up . . . speed up
D) speed up . . . slow down
E) not change . . . not change

B) slow down . . . speed up

Which step of the Krebs cycle requires both NAD+ and ADP as reactants?
47)
A) step 1 B) step 2 C) step 3 D) step 4 E) step 5

C) step 3

Which H+ ion has just passed through the inner mitochondrial membrane by diffusion?
48)
A) hydrogen ion A
B) hydrogen ion B
C) hydrogen ion C
D) hydrogen ion D
E) hydrogen ion E

E) hydrogen ion E

The method of weight loss described for Fat Away shows that the drug is acting as a metabolic 49)
A) uncoupler.
B) feedback inhibitor.
C) coenzyme.
D) redox promoter.
E) oxygen carrier.

A) uncoupler.

50) Fat Away prevents ATP from being made by 50)
A) slowing down the Krebs cycle.
B) glycolysis from occurring.
C) blocking access of H+ to ATP synthetase.
D) preventing the conversion of NADH to NAD+.
E) lowering body temperature.

C) blocking access of H+ to ATP synthetase.

The summary equation for photosynthesis is 1)
A) 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + sunlight 􀀏 C6H12O6 + 6 O2.
B) 6 CH2O + 5 O2 + sunlight 􀀏 CO2 + 2 H2O.
C) C5H12O6 + 6 O2 + sunlight 􀀏 5 CO2 + 6 H2O.
D) the same as the equation for glycolysis written in reverse.
E) C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + sunlight 􀀏 6 CO2 + 6 H2O.

A) 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + sunlight 􀀏 C6H12O6 + 6 O2.

What is the name given to organisms that can make their own food and the food for the biosphere? 2)
A) synthesizers
B) producers
C) heterotrophs
D) chemotrophs
E) manufacturers

B) producers

Which of the following is an example of a photoautotroph? 3)
A) cyanobacteria in freshwater and marine ecosystems
B) mushrooms growing on the side of a dead tree
C) bacteria in our mouth
D) fungi growing in the refrigerator
E) grizzly bears in Alaska

A) cyanobacteria in freshwater and marine ecosystems

Autotrophs that utilize light as their energy source are 4)
A) photoautotrophs.
B) heterotrophs.
C) fungi.
D) consumers.
E) chemosynthetic autotrophs.

A) photoautotrophs.

What is the likely origin of chloroplasts? 5)
A) prokaryotes with photosynthetic mitochondria
B) mitochondria that had a mutation for photosynthesis
C) eukaryotes that engulfed photosynthetic fungi
D) photosynthetic prokaryotes that lived inside eukaryotic cells
E) a combination of mitochondria and Golgi bodies

D) photosynthetic prokaryotes that lived inside eukaryotic cells

________ cells in leaves are specialized for photosynthesis. 6)
A) Mesophyll
B) Tracheid
C) Companion
D) Collenchyma
E) Sclerenchyma

A) Mesophyll

7) CO2 enters and O2 escapes from a leaf via 7)
A) stomata.
B) central vacuoles.
C) grana.
D) stroma.
E) thylakoids.

A) stomata.

In the chloroplast, sugars are made in a compartment that is filled with a thick fluid called the 8)
A) thylakoid.
B) matrix.
C) stroma.
D) stomata.
E) mesophyll

C) stroma.

Chloroplasts contain disklike membranous sacs arranged in stacks called 9)
A) stroma.
B) grana.
C) thylakoids.
D) vacuoles.
E) cristae.

B) grana

Where is chlorophyll found in a plant cell? 10)
A) thylakoid membranes
B) stroma
C) matrix
D) cristae
E) cytoplasm

A) thylakoid membranes

The oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis comes from 11)
A) carbon dioxide.
B) mitochondria.
C) glucose.
D) water.
E) chlorophyll.

D) water.

If you expose a photosynthesizing plant to water that contains both radioactive H and radioactive
O, in which of the products of photosynthesis will the radioactive H and O show up?
12)
A) H and O both in glucose
B) H in glucose and water; O in water and O2
C) H in glucose; O in water
D) H in water; O in glucose
E) H in glucose and water; O in O2

E) H in glucose and water; O in O2

A redox reaction involves the transfer of 13)
A) an electron.
B) carbon dioxide.
C) a hydrogen ion.
D) water.
E) oxygen.

A) an electron.

Which of the following statements concerning the role of redox reactions in photosynthesis and
cellular respiration is true?
14)
A) In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is oxidized to form sugar, while in respiration, sugar is
reduced to form carbon dioxide.
B) In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced to form sugar, while in respiration, sugar is
oxidized to form carbon dioxide.
C) Photosynthesis involves both reduction and oxidation, while respiration involves only
oxidation.
D) Photosynthesis involves only oxidations, while respiration involves only reductions.
E) Photosynthesis involves only reductions, while respiration involves only oxidations.

B) In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced to form sugar, while in respiration, sugar is
oxidized to form carbon dioxide.

What is the source of energy that provides the boost for electrons during photosynthesis? 15)
A) light
B) glucose
C) ATP
D) electromagnetism
E) cellular respiration

A) light

Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis is false? 16)
A) Photosynthesis consumes CO2; respiration consumes O2.
B) The principal electron carrier in photosynthesis is NADPH; the principal electron carrier in
respiration is NADH.
C) Photosynthesis produces O2; respiration produces CO2.
D) Photosynthesis is ultimately powered by light energy and respiration by the chemical energy
of fuel molecules.
E) ATP is not produced during photosynthesis, but only during respiration.

E) ATP is not produced during photosynthesis, but only during respiration.

17) The light reactions occur in the ________, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the ________. 17)
A) stroma . . . thylakoid membranes
B) stroma . . . nucleus
C) cytoplasm . . . thylakoid membrane
D) thylakoid membranes . . . stroma
E) cytoplasm . . . stroma

D) thylakoid membranes . . . stroma

Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis? 18)
A) glucose, ADP, NADP+, CO2
B) ADP, NADP+, O2
C) ATP, NADPH, O2
D) ATP, NADPH, CO2
E) glucose, ADP, NADP+

C) ATP, NADPH, O2

19) Which of the following are produced during the Calvin cycle? 19)
A) glucose, ADP, NADP+
B) ATP, NADPH, CO2
C) ATP, NADPH, O2
D) glucose, ADP, NADP+, CO2
E) ADP, NADP+, O2

A) glucose, ADP, NADP+

20) Carbon fixation 20)
A) uses noncyclic electron flow to capture energy in glucose.
B) powers the process of glucose synthesis by supplying the cell with ATP.
C) provides the cell with a supply of NADPH molecules.
D) occurs when carbon and oxygen from CO2 are incorporated into an organic molecule.
E) occurs during the light reactions.

D) occurs when carbon and oxygen from CO2 are incorporated into an organic molecule

21) The full range of electromagnetic energy is called the ________ spectrum. 21)
A) energy
B) wavelength
C) ultraviolet
D) visible
E) electromagnetic

E) electromagnetic

A) Chlorophyll b primarily uses green light as the source of energy for photosynthesis.
B) Chlorophyll a reflects green light.
C) All photosynthetic pigments are colored green.
D) Chlorophyll a absorbs green light.
E) Green helps plants blend into their environment as a sort of camouflage.

B) Chlorophyll a reflects green light.

Which of the following colors contributes the least energy to photosynthesis? 23)
A) orange B) blue C) green D) red E) violet

C) green

As a result of the cascade of electrons down the electron transport chains of the light reactions, 24)
A) NADP+ is oxidized to NADPH.
B) NADPH is oxidized to NADP+.
C) water is formed.
D) NADPH is reduced to NADP+.
E) NADP+ is reduced to NADPH.

E) NADP+ is reduced to NADPH

The electrons lost from the reaction center of photosystem II are replaced by electrons from 25)
A) H2O.
B) photosystem I.
C) ATP.
D) CO2.
E) NADPH.

A) H2O.

Photosystem II 26)
A) is reduced by NADPH.
B) does not have a reaction center.
C) releases CO2 as a by-product.
D) has P700 at its reaction center.
E) passes electrons to photosystem I.

E) passes electrons to photosystem I.

Photophosphorylation differs from oxidative phosphorylation in that 27)
A) it involves an electron transport chain.
B) energy is stored in the form of a proton concentration difference.
C) the final electron acceptor is NADP+ and not oxygen.
D) its enzymes are membrane-bound.
E) regeneration of ATP is driven by a flow of protons through an ATP synthase.

C) the final electron acceptor is NADP+ and not oxygen.

In photophosphorylation, energy from electron flow is used to transport ________ from the
________ to the thylakoid compartment, generating a concentration gradient of ________.
28)
A) H+ . . . stroma . . . H+
B) H+ . . . stroma . . . ATP
C) H+ . . . grana . . . electrons
D) electrons . . . stroma . . . H+
E) electrons . . . grana . . . H+

A) H+ . . . stroma . . . H+

A concentration gradient is a form of 29)
A) life.
B) kinetic energy.
C) an exergonic reaction.
D) potential energy.
E) entropy.

D) potential energy.

The chloroplast ATP synthase 30)
A) transports H+ ions from the stroma to the thylakoid space.
B) is a nucleic acid complex.
C) helps transport H+ against the concentration gradient.
D) is embedded in the inner membrane of the chloroplast.
E) couples the flow of H+ to the phosphorylation of NADP+.

A) transports H+ ions from the stroma to the thylakoid space

In photosynthesis, the chemiosmotic production of ATP 31)
A) requires oxygen.
B) is done by the Calvin cycle.
C) is analogous to the production of ATP in mitochondria.
D) is a result of the oxidation of glucose.
E) requires the input of NADPH.

C) is analogous to the production of ATP in mitochondria

Mitochondria transfer ________ energy from ________ to ATP; chloroplasts transform ________
energy into the chemical energy of ATP.
32)
A) chemical . . . food . . . light
B) nuclear . . . light . . . food
C) food . . . light . . . chemical
D) food . . . light . . . nuclear
E) light . . . food . . . kinetic

A) chemical . . . food . . . light

Photosynthetic organisms derive their carbon from 33)
A) hydrocarbons.
B) methane.
C) ribose.
D) carbon monoxide.
E) carbon dioxide.

E) carbon dioxide.

To produce one glucose, the Calvin cycle needs to be run through ________ time(s). 34)
A) eight B) one C) four D) six E) two

D) six

The Calvin cycle constructs ________, an energy-rich molecule that a plant cell can then use to
make glucose or other organic molecules.
35)
A) ATP
B) G3P
C) NADH
D) NADPH
E) carbon dioxide

B) G3P

The ultimate source of all the food we eat and the oxygen we breathe is 36)
A) anaerobic metabolism.
B) chemiosmosis.
C) photosynthesis.
D) glycolysis.
E) cellular respiration.

C) photosynthesis

Plants use sugars as 37)
A) a fuel for cellular respiration and a starting material for making other organic molecules.
B) a fuel for photophosphorylation.
C) a source of electrons for chemiosmosis.
D) a starting material for the Calvin cycle.
E) a fuel for photosynthesis.

A) a fuel for cellular respiration and a starting material for making other organic molecules.

Plant cells 38)
A) have mitochondria but do not have chloroplasts.
B) lack mitochondria but have chloroplasts.
C) lack mitochondria and chloroplasts.
D) have chloroplasts and vestigial mitochondria.
E) have mitochondria and chloroplasts.

E) have mitochondria and chloroplasts.

39) Photorespiration 39)
A) produces glucose.
B) is an evolutionary relic from when atmospheric O2 levels were low and did not interfere with
rubisco.
C) is of benefit to the plant since it breaks down rubisco.
D) is attributable to high CO2 levels.
E) produces ATP.

B) is an evolutionary relic from when atmospheric O2 levels were low and did not interfere with
rubisco.

What is the main adaptive advantage of the C4 and CAM photosynthesis strategies over the C3
strategy?
40)
A) They make it possible for the plant to use the Calvin cycle at night.
B) They allow the plant to fix carbon more efficiently under conditions of low atmospheric CO2.
C) They help the plant conserve water and synthesize glucose efficiently under hot, dry
conditions.
D) They allow the plant to fix carbon more efficiently in dim or cool conditions.
E) They allow the plant to avoid photorespiration by producing a four-carbon sugar in place of
glucose.

C) They help the plant conserve water and synthesize glucose efficiently under hot, dry
conditions

The greenhouse effect is 41)
A) of little concern, since it is part of the normal cycle for the planet.
B) reduced by photosynthesis, which removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
C) reduced by the addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, since carbon dioxide removes
excess heat from the Earth's surface and reflects it back into space.
D) made worse by photosynthesis, which adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
E) reduced by the burning of fossil fuels, which removes oxygen from the atmosphere.

B) reduced by photosynthesis, which removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Which of the following statements about the greenhouse effect is true? 42)
A) The greenhouse effect has no direct relationship with the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s.
B) The greenhouse effect is reduced by deforestation.
C) The greenhouse effect is inversely related to increasing levels of atmospheric CO2.
D) The greenhouse effect is exacerbated by the use of fossil fuels.
E) The greenhouse effect will decrease the average temperature of the planet.

D) The greenhouse effect is exacerbated by the use of fossil fuels.

It has been argued that cutting old-growth forests and replacing them with plantations of young
trees would help to alleviate the threat of global greenhouse warming. What important fact does
this argument ignore?
43)
A) Most of the biomass of the cut trees would be added to the atmosphere as CO2 within a few
years.
B) Forests play too minor a role in global CO2 dynamics, which are affected far more by marine
algae.
C) Most of the young trees would die within a few years.
D) Young trees emit ozone-destroying gases at a higher rate than old trees and would thus
worsen the ozone-hole problem while alleviating global warming.

A) Most of the biomass of the cut trees would be added to the atmosphere as CO2 within a few
years.

) Ozone 44)
A) protects Earth from UV radiation.
B) levels in the atmosphere have been steadily increasing in the past century.
C) is broken down by carbon dioxide.
D) is a source of oxygen for cellular respiration.
E) formation is promoted by CFCs.

A) protects Earth from UV radiation.

Ozone consists of ________ oxygen atom(s). 45)
A) three B) zero C) one D) two E) four
7

A) three

46) Which of the following has been a major source of ozone destruction over the past 50 years? 46)
A) cellular respiration
B) ethylene glycol
C) chlorofluorocarbons
D) chemiosmosis
E) carbon dioxide

C) chlorofluorocarbons

In this drawing of a chloroplast, which structure represents the thylakoid membrane?
47)
A) structure A
B) structure B
C) structure C
D) structure D
E) structure E

C) structure C

According to this figure, how do H+ ions make their way from the stroma to the thylakoid interior?
48)
A) through photosystem II
B) directly through the phospholipids of the thylakoid membrane
C) through an electron transport chain molecule
D) through the ATP synthase
E) through photosystem I

C) through an electron transport chain molecule

49) Based on your knowledge of the process of photosynthesis, the plant in the container placed under
red light would probably
49)
A) absorb no CO2.
B) absorb the same amount of CO2 as the plants under both the green light and normal sunlight.
C) absorb more CO2 than the plants under the green light.
D) absorb the same amount of CO2 as the plants under the green light.
E) absorb less CO2 than the plants under green light.

C) absorb more CO2 than the plants under the green light.

50) Carbon dioxide absorption is an appropriate indicator of photosynthesis because 50)
A) plants produce oxygen gas by splitting CO2.
B) CO2 is needed to produce sugars in the Calvin cycle.
C) CO2 energizes electrons in the electron transport system.
D) the energy in CO2 is used to produce ATP and NADPH.
E) CO2 is needed to complete the light reactions.
10

B) CO2 is needed to produce sugars in the Calvin cycle.

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