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1. Element- atomic number, symbol 2. electron configuration and orbitals 3. Groups and periods 4. oxidation states 5. periodic trends

Period

Rows

Group

Columns

Periodic trend- electronegativity
Period L to R
Rows top to bottom

Across period- increases, closer to noble gas
Bottom to top- increases

Periodic trend- Atomic radius
Left to right within a period
Top to bottom

Across period- Decreases from left to right within a period. Stronger nuclear force.
Down the row- increases, shielding effect.

Periodic trend- ionization energy
Left to right across a period
Up a group

The amout of energy necessary to remove the least tightly bound electron from an isolatedatom.
Left to right across a period- increases, more tightly bounded.
Up a group- increases, more tightly bounded.

Periodic trend-electron affinity

The energy associated with the addition of an electron to an isolated atom is known as the atom's electron affinity (EA).
neg- energy is released when electron is added; pos- energy is required.
Halogens- very large neg number, fulfill the octet configuration.
Nobel gas- very large pos number, unstable.
EA become more neg as we move to the right across a row or up a group (noble gases excepted)

Periodic trend- acidity

Horizontal trend- the more electrongeative the elment is, the more stable the anion will be. Acidity increases from L to R across the period.
Vertical trend for acidity depends on the size of the anion. The larger the anion, the more the negative charge can be delocalized and stabilized. Therefore, acidity increases down a group or family.

Group 1
Group IA
metal types, family, oxidation state, elements

Alkali metals, lithium family
s block (first two rows)
Oxidation numbers: +1
Oxidation states for H is +/- 1, with metal -1, with nonmental: +1
Element 1, 3, 11, 19, 37, 55, 87
H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr

Group 2
Group IIA
Metal types, family oxidation state, elements

Alkali earth metals, beryllium family
s block
Oxidation numbers: +2
Element 4, 12, 20, 38, 56, 88
Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra

Group 3
Group IIIB

Transition metals, Scandium family
d block (next ten rows)
Oxidation numbers: +3
Element 21, 39, 57
Sc, Y, La

Group 4
Group IVB

Transition metals,Titanium family
d block- variable oxidation numbers
All B elements have variable oxidation numbers
Element 22, 40, 72
Ti, Zr, Hf

Group 5
Group VB

Transition metals, Vanadium family
d block
Element 23, 41, 73
V, Nb, Ta

Group 6
Group VIB

Transition metals, Cromium family
d block
element 24, 42, 74
Cr, Mo, W

Group 7
Group VIIB

Transition metals, Manganase family
d block
element 25, 43, 75
Mn, Tc, Re

Group 8
Group VIIIB

Transition metals, iron family
d block
Element 26, 44, 76
Fe, Ru, Os

Group 9
Group VIIIB

Transition metals, cobalt family
d block
Element 27, 45, 77
Co, Rh, Ir

Group 10
Group VIIIB

Transition metals, Nickel family
d block
Element 28, 46, 78
Ni, Pd, Pt

Group 11
Group IB

Transition metals, Copper family
d block
Element 29, 47, 79
Cu, Ag, Au

Group 12
Group IIB

Transition metals, Zinc family
d block
element 30, 48, 80
Zn, Cd, Hg

Group 13
Group IIIA

Post transition metals, metalloids (ladder)
p block (six rows fartherest to the left + He)
Elements 5, 13, 31, 49, 81
Metalloids: B
Post transittion metals (below the ladder): Al, Ga, ln, TI

Group 14
Group IVA

Nonmetals, metalloids, post transition metals
p block
Elements 6, 14, 32, 50, 82
Non metals: C
Metalloids: Si, Ge
Post transition metals: Sn, Pb

Group 15
Group VA

Nonmetals, metalloids, post transition metals
p block
Elements 7, 15, 33, 51, 83
Nonmetals: N, P
metalloids: As, Sb
Post transition metals: Bi

Group 16
Group VIA

Nonmetals, metalloids, postransition metals
p block
Element 8, 16, 34, 52, 84
Nonmetals: O, S, Se
Metalloids: Te, Po

Oxygen oxidation number: -2, -1 in peroxides (H2O2)

Group 17
Group VIIA

Halogens
Flouride family
p block
Element 9, 17, 35, 53, 85
F, Cl, Br, I, At

Flourine always has an oxidation number of -1.

Group 18
Group VIIIA

Noble gas
Helium or neon family
p block
Element 2, 10, 18, 36, 54, 86
He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

Lanthanum Series

f block
Elements 58-71

Actinium Series

f block
Elements 90-103

Period 1

Element 1, 2
H, He
orbitals per shell (n^2)=1
Electrons per shell (2n^2)=2

Period 2

Element 3-10
Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne
orbitals per shell=4
electrons per shell= 8

Period 3

Element 11-18
Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar
orbitals per shell=9
Electrons per shell= 18

Period 4

Element 19-36
K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr
Orbitals per shell=16
Electrons per shell= 36

Period 5

Element 37-54
Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, ln, Sn, Sb, Te, l, Xe
Orbitals per shell= 25
Electrons per shell= 50

Period 6

Element 55-86
Lanthanum Series: 58-71
Element 55-57: Cs, Ba, La
Lanthanum series, 58-71: Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu
Element 72-86: Hf, ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, TI, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn

Period 7

Element 87-118
Actinium Series: 89-103
Element 87-88: Fr, Ra
Actinium Series, 89-103: Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr
Elements104-118: Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt, Ds, Rg, Uub, Uut, Uuq, Uup, Uuh, Uus, Uuo

Element 1
Atomic number 1
Symbol
Element name
Mass number
Electron orbits
electron configuration

1
H
Hydrogen
1.1.00794
1
1s^1
l=0, m=0, n=1

Element 2

2
He
Helium
4. 002602
2
1s^2
l=0, m=0, n=1

Element 3

3
Li
Lithium
6. 941
2-1
1s^2 2s^1
l=0, m=0, n=2

Element 4

4
Be
Beryllium
9.012182
2-2
1s^2 2s^2
l=0, m=0, n=2

Element 5

5
B
Boron
10.8
+3
2-3
1s^2, 2s^2, 2p^1
l=1, m=-1, n=2

Element 6

6
C
Carbon
12.0
-4, +4
2-4
1s^2 2s^2 2p^2
l=1, m=0, n=2

Element 7

7
N
Nitrogen
14.0
-3,3, 5
2-5
1s^2 2s^2 2p^3
l=1, m=1, n=2

Element 8

8
O
Oxygen
16.0
-2
2-6
1s^2 2s^2 2p^4

Element 9

9
F
Flourine
19.0
-1
2-7
1s^2 2s^2 2p^5

Element 10

10
Ne
Neon
20.2
0 charge
2-8
1s^2 2s^2 2p^6

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