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Albany Plan of Union

plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown

French and Indian War

This struggle between the British and the French in the colonies of North America was part of a worldwide war known as the Seven Years' War. (1756-1763)

Cajuns

an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles

Acadians

French settlers who would not pledge their loyalties to the British and were driven from their homes; cajuns of Louisiana are descendants of these people

Pontiac's Rebellion

a 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area

Proclamation of 1763

law created by British officials that prohibited colonists from settling in areas west of the Appalachian Mountains

Republicanism

A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. Government is based on consent of the governed.

Mercantilism

an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

Sugar Act

Placed duties on foreign sugar and certain luxuries. Main purpose was to raise money for the crown.

Quatering Act

legislation that required colonists to feed & shelter British troops; disobeyed in New York & elsewhere

Stamp Act

A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies

Stamp Act Congress

A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.

Non-Importation Agreements

Colonists agreed to stick together and promised to stpo importing goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. They hoped that the boycott would repeal the Townshend Acts.

Sons Of Liberty

Secret society formed by Samuel Adams to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. It led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors; also firm supporters of independence.

Declaratory Act

In 1766, the English Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and at the same time signed this Act. This document stated that Parliament had the right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever."

Townshend Acts

tax on glass, tea, and paper; provided for search of private homes for smuggled goods; to pay crown officials in the colonies; suspended new York's assembly for that colony's defiance of the Quartering Act.

Boston Massacre

The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans

committees of correspondence

Samuel Adams started the first committee in Boston in 1772 to spread propaganda and secret information by way of letters. They were used to sustain opposition to British policy. The committees were extremely effective and a few years later almost every colony had one.

Boston Tea Party

demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor

Intolerable Acts

in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses

Treaty Of Paris 1763

ended the Seven Years' War. The treaty marked the beginning of an extensive period of British dominance outside of Europe.

Ethan Allen

a soldier of the American Revolution whose troops helped capture Fort Ticonderoga from the British (1738-1789)

Bendict Arnold

United States general and traitor in the American Revolution; in 1780 his plan to surrender West Point to the British was foiled (1741-1801)

Thomas Paine

Patriot and writer whose pamphlet Common Sense, published in 1776, convinced many Americans that it was time to declare independence from Britain.

Benjamin Franklin

American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor. During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists.

Thomas Jefferson

Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States.

Civic Virtue

the notion that democracy depended on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to the public good.

Paxton Boys

A mob of Pennsylvania Scots-Irish Immigrants who led a revolt to protest colonial policies towards Native Americans

Quebec Act

1774. Act that was meant to organize the colonies, but instead just cut off western land claims of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Virginia, and New York. Within the cut-off area, a government was set up with no representative assembly and favored the Catholic church.

First Continental Congress

in September 1774, twelve of the colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia for Intolerable Acts response; delegates fell into 3 distinct groups. It did not succeed

Lexington and Concord

site of the "shot heard around the world" at the start of the Revolutionary War

Valley Forge

the site where George Washington and his troops endured a harsh winter without proper food, shelter, or clothing

George Greenville

British prime minister/ loyalist. Said that colonies should help pay off the war debt. Believed in mercantilism.

Crispus Atticus

he was a "mulatto" - one of the first to die at the Boston Massacre

Samuel Adams

Massachusetts Revolutionary leader and propagandist who organized opposition to British policies after 1764; radical member of Sons of Liberty, worried that violence of group would discredit it; proposed united plea for repeal of Townshend Duties and another pan-colonial congress; circulated his own exaggerated version of events around colonies

Thomas Hutchinson

The British official, who was also the Massachusetts governor was determined not to budge under the colonists. He ordered the tea ships not to clear the Boston harbor until they had unloaded their cargo. His house was pillaged and burned by the colonists.

Second Continental Congress

They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence

Olive Branch Petition

On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament,

Hessians

German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.

Common Sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation

Declaration of Independence

this document was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It established the 13 colonies as independent startes, free frome rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Presented the ideas of natural rights, religion, freedom of speech ,and property

Loyalists

Americans that feared revolution & supported the british

Patriots

Colonists who wanted independence from Britain

Battle of Saratoga

Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.

Battle of Yorktown

Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.

Treaty of Paris 1783

signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally ended the American Revolutionary War between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the thirteen United States of America, which had rebelled against British rule starting in 1775. The other combatant nations, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic had separate agreements

Articles of Confederation

This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.

Northwest Ordinance

Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states

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