Republican who received the same number of electoral votes as Jefferson since they ran together, thus throwing the election to the House. Caused an amendment to state that President and Vice-President were to be voted separately.
He was an American politician, diplomat, and Secretary of the Treasury. He was responsible for balancing the budget, which let America purchase the Louisiana territory from France.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Responses to the Alien and Sedition Acts that said that the states withheld the right to nullify laws of Congress that they found unconstitutional.
States' ability to override federal laws or acts.
Judiciary Act of 1801
One of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams's last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
Tripolitan War of 1801
Pirates of the North African Barbary States were dissatisfied with the amount of protection money paid by the US, and informally declared war on them by cutting down the flagstaff off the American consulate; the US managed to extort a peace treaty as a result of the effective use of the navy.
Led the Haitian revolution in expelling the French from Haiti.
The capturing of American ships by the British, and forcing the US sailors to enlist in the British navy.
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe; intended to destroy Great Britain's economy
Closed European ports under French control to foreign shipping, including American, unless the vessels stopped first at a British port; there was no way to trade between either France or Great Britain without being caught in the middle.
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair 1807
British captain demanded the surrender of four alleged deserters on the Chesapeake, launched an attack on the American ship when it refused; instigated an outcry for war in America.
Embargo Act 1807
Banned imports and exports to and from all foreign nations.
Non-Intercourse Act 1809
Reopened trade with all nations of the world except France and Great Britain.
Macon's Bill #2 1810
Reopened trade with the rest of the world, while maintaining that if either Britain or France repealed its commercial restrictions, America would restore its embargo against the nonrepealing nation.
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Tecumseh & the prophet formed a confederation and were defeated by William Henry Harrison, making many americans suspicious of British aid and stirred up talk of canadian invasion.
Hartford Convention 1814
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island met secretly to discuss their grievances and to seek redress for their wrongs; alarmed Antifederalists as a conspiracy.
Treaty of Ghent 1815
Was more of an armistice that agreed to end the War of 1812 and restore all original land boundaries.
National (Cumberland) Road
Ran ultimately from western Maryland to Illinois; improved land routes to the Ohio River Valley.
Second US Bank
An institution accused of being dangerously independent of democratic oversight; epitomized the business community side of the class conflict.
Bonus Bill 1816
Intended to use profits from the Second US bank to fund internal affairs; left the southern states out of the benefits.
Era of Good Feelings
Monroe's presidency was marked by this era of nonpartisanship