A powerful cytotoxin produced by Bacillus anthracis, which increases vascular permeability. It has three components: edema factor, protective antigen, and lethal factor.
A structure composed of a variety of bacterial species that coexist. It is often seen as the beginning layer of plaque, which builds up on teeth.
Also known as pneumonic plague and bubonic plague. A noncontagious form of plague caused by Yersinia pestis and transmitted to humans by the bite of a flea. It is a systemic disease that spreads through the blood and lymph fluid.
An extremely poisonous neurotoxin associated with botulism, a digestive intoxication resulting from food poisoning.
Also known as a negative stain; the background is stained, making the capsule visible.
A protective structure found around the outside of a bacterial cell. It can be made up of polysaccharides, polypeptides, or a combination of both.
An exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholera pathogens. It is an enterotoxin that causes increased permeability in the intestinal tract and a consequent loss of fluids.
The form of DNA seen in cells that are not ready to divide. It has the appearance of threads.
The structure containing DNA that is seen in cells that are ready to divide. It is derived from the condensation of chromatin.
Cilia (singular cilium)
Short cellular projections seen in eukaryotic cells used for movement that result from the beating of these projections in coordinated waves.
Adherent deposits that form as a result of bacterial colonization of the surface of the teeth.
The use of two or more dyes to differentiate between bacterial species or distinguish different structures of an organism.
An exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that affects the membranes of the nose, throat, and larynx. It can also affect the heart and the central nervous system.
An acute bacterial infection of the nose, throat, or larynx caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is marked by formation of a grey/white pseudomembrane.
Diplococcus (plural diplococci)
The arrangement of bacteria that grow in pairs. Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of pneumonia, is an important example.
The process in which vesicles form by invagination of the plasma membrane of the cell and move substances into the cell.
An extensive network of membranes that form tubes and plates in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are involved in the synthesis and transport of proteins and lipids.
Evolutionary theory holding that the organelles of eukaryotic cells arose from bacteria that came to live in a symbiotic relationship inside eucaryotic cells.
Process in which vesicles inside a cell fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents to the outside of the cell.
A technique used for observing flagella by coating the surface of the flagella with multiple layers of dye or metal such as silver.
An organelle found in eukaryotic cells that receives, modifies, and transports substances coming from the endoplasmic reticulum.
A sexually transmitted infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoaea, commonly asymptomatic in females but marked by a painful purulent discharge from the urethra in males.
A differential stain that differentiates bacteria into either Gram-positive or Gram-negative groups.
An organism found in the stomach and duodenum of the small intestine; it accounts for up to 80% of ulcers found in these regions of the digestive tract.
A disease in which there are periods of inactivity either before the onset of symptoms or between attacks.
A small membrane-enclosed organelle seen in eukaryotic cells that contains digestive enzymes.
A protein tubule that forms the structure of cilia, flagella, and part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells.
Mitochondria (singular mitochondrion)
A membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells that is responsible for the production of ATP.
An acute contagious disease usually seen in children. It is caused by a paramyxovirus and chiefly affects the parotid salivary glands.
A form of symbiosis in which two organisms of different species live in a relationship in which both benefit.
Also called the nuclear envelope. It is the membrane surrounding the nucleus seen in eukaryotic cells.
Nucleoli (singular nucleolus)
Areas in the nucleus of eucaryotic cells where ribosomal RNA is made and ribosomal assembly takes place.
The semifluid portion of the cell nucleus of eukaryotic cells that is surrounded by the nuclear membrane.
Resident or transient microorganisms that do not ordinarily cause disease but can do so under certain circumstances.
Sections of the genome that include groups of genes coding for virulence factors that increase the pathogenicity of a microorganism.
A highly contagious respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis. Also known as whooping cough.
An extrachromosomal piece of DNA that is small and circular and replicates independently. It can be transferred to another cell.
Also known as the black death and bubonic plague. An infection of the lungs with Yersinia pestis, causing a highly contagious form of plague.
Microorganism that lacks a cell nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. All bacteria are prokaryotes.
Large proteins found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that degrade unneeded or damaged proteins.
Type of decision-making process seen in bacteria that is based on the density of the population of bacteria.
The process of uptake of materials into the cell through binding to specific receptors on the cell membrane.
Venereal disease caused by Treponema pallidum leading to many structural and cutaneous lesions.
The structure seen around the capsid of some viruses. It is made up of the membrane components obtained when the mature virion leaves the host cell during the process of budding release.