How do Leukocytes leave tissue?
What are the 5 types of WBC?
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas. Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils,Basophils
Which group of WBC contain cytoplasmic granules?
Bacterial slayers, lilac color
red-staining, bi-lobed, parasitic worms, allergies
U or S shaped nuclei, histamine, like mast cells
Which major type of WBC lack visible cytoplasmic granules?
dark-purple with blue rim, T cells (Immune) B cells (Antibodies)
Largest, pale blue, U or kidney shaped , macrophages, highly mobile
What hormones stimulate Leukopoiesis?
interleukins and colony stimulating factors (CSF) both are cytokines
All leukocytes orignate from what cell type?
In WBC what are the two possible different cells that hemocytoblasts become?
myeloid or lymphoid stem cells
Lymphoid stem cells become?
lymphoblasts then lymphocytes
Myloid stems become what 2 possible cells?
Myeloblasts or monoblasts
Monoblasts develop into what?
Myeloblasts develop into what
eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils
Acute Leukemia that primarily affects who?
WBC cancerous condition is called what?
leukemia named according to abnormal WBC involved such as what?
myelocytic leukemia = myloblasts, lymphocytic leukemia = lymphocytes
Chronic leukemia is prevalent in who?
What are platelets?
fragments of megakaryocytes (purple granular center)
What do platelet granules contain?
Calcium, enzymes, ADP, PDGF
What is the function of platelets?
How are uninvolved platelets kept inactive?
NO and prostgladin I2
What is the sequence for platelet development?
hemocytoblast, megakaryoblast, promegakarycytes, platelets
What are the tree phases for stoppage of bleeding?
1. vascular spasm, 2. platelet plug forms, 3. coagulation (blood clotting)
What is the stoppage of bleeding an example of?
positive feed back
What is another name for blood clotting?
What two path ways does coagulation follow?
intrinsic and extrinsic
What are the last three steps of coagulation?
1. Prothrombin activator formed, 2. prothrombin to thrombin, 3. Thrombin joins fibrinogen into fibrin mesh
What is clot retraction?
stabilization of clot (squeezing serum)
What is the repair consist of?
PDGF rebuilds, Fibroblasts form patch, vegf restore
What 2 mechanisms prevent clots from becoming large?
swift removal of clotting factors, inhibition of activated clotting factors
What is a thrombus?
A clot that persists and can block
What is an embolus?
Freely floating thrombus
What are substances used to prevent clots?
aspirin, heparin, warfin
What is widespread clotting in blood vessels common in pregnancy & blood transfusions?
Disseminated Intravascular coagulation (DIC)
In what condition are the number of circulating platelets deficient and patients show petechiae?
Name three types of hemophilias?
A (factor VIII), B (factor IX), C (factor Xl)
How is hemophilia treated?
blood transfusions with injection of missing factors
What is used to treat anemia?
Packed red cells (plasma removed)
What is used to treat thrombocytopenia?
Whole blood transfusion
RBC membranes can have what combinations of glycoprotein ANTIGENS on their surface?
none = o, a, b, AB,
Agglutinogen cannot be mixed with what?
Their corresponding ANTIBODIES (hemolytic reactions)
If you have the presence of RH agglutinogens on RBC that is called what?
What drug prevents an Rh- mom from becoming sensitized?
What happens in a transfusion reaction?
Diminished Ox carrying capacity, clumped cells, ruptured RBC release hemoglobin into bloodstream
Name three types of blood tests?
laboratory, microscopic, chemical analysis