5 Written Questions
4 Matching Questions
- What are the 4 ways to minimize threats to validity?
- a random selection, random assignment
- b control group
- c the technique of equating groups on one or more variables, with the result that each member of one group has a direct counterpart in another group
- d 1. Standardize the conditions in which the study occurs.
2. Know the characteristics of the participants in the study
3. Know the details of the study, such as where, when, and the extraneous events that may occur
4. Plan and chose a suitable design
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- this tests the main and interaction effects of categorical variables on a continuous dependent variable, controlling for the effects of selected other continuous variables that covary with the dependent variable
- a statistical procedure for examining the results of several research studies on the same topic and determining the congruence and divergence of outcome data
- The degree to which results of a study can be applied to other settings or conditions
- This often occurs in single-subject experimental design or some pretest-posttest designs. This option provides high internal validity because participants serve as their own controls.
5 True/False Questions
quasi-experimental design → does not use random assignment as a means of control
randomization → unpredictable fluctuations in instruments, participants, or conditions
correlational designs → used to investigate the relationship among two or more variables without attempting to manipulate them
criterion-related evidence → asks the question of whether the instruments and the sample accurately represent the variable under study. A researcher would ask whether the questions used in the instrument adequately assess the variable under study. To ensure content-related validity, researchers should look over the content and format of the instrument to be used
single-case design → researchers manipulate variables or introduce a treatment to one participant or group over time and intently study effects