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All of the following are prominent features of Greece's topography?

a. Valleys
b. Bays and harbors
c. Mountains
d. NOT extensive open plains

In general, separate early Greek communities:

Became fierce rivals fighting so often as to threaten Greek civilization itself

The chief center of Minoan Crete was:

Knossos

The following best describes the Mycenaean's:

They were a warrior people who achieved their apex between 1400 and 1200 BC

The civilization of Minoan Crete:

Enjoyed great prosperity due to extensive sea trade and commerce

The group of people who succeeded the Mycenaean's in Greece around 1100 BC were the:

Dorians

1. The period immediately following the collapse of the Mycenaean's civilization is referred to as:

The Greek Dark Age

During the migration of the Greek Dark Age, many Ionians

Crossed the Agean Sea to settle the Asia Minor

What were the chief characteristics of the Greek Dark Age?

It was a period of migrations and declining food production

Homer's Iliad points out:

The honor and courage of Greek aristocratic heroes in battle

Which of the following is true of Greece from c 750 to c. 500 B.C.

The polis evolved into the central institution in Greek life

The polis was the Greek name for:

city-state

Characteristic of the typical Greek polis:

a. It contained an agora and acropolis within its fortification

b. Each polis was autonomous from all other poleis

c. The strength of the community came through cooperation

d. NOT each polis had a population of between 90-100,000 citizens

The development of the polis had a negative impact on Greek society by:

Dividing Greece into fiercely competitive states

During the period of Greek history from 750-500BC:

a. The polis developed as the chief political institution

b. Trade and colonization increased greatly

The hoplite phalanx was:

A new Greek military organization of heavily armed infantry

The rise of tyrants in the poleis in the seventh and sixth centuries BC

Often encouraged the economic and cultural progress of the cities

Tyranny in the Greek polis arose as:

A consequence of aristocratic power and a widening gulf between the rich and the poor

In Sparta:

Life resembled that of a military camp

The Lycurgan reforms resulted in:

The establishment of a permanent military state in Sparta

By the sixth century B.C., to balance the power of king and Council of Elders Spartan political reformers created the:

Ephors

Spartan helots:

a. Farmed the land as sharecroppers

b. Had war declared on them every year

For the Greeks, the term arête described:

The excellence of heroes willing to fight in defense of honor

The early history of Athenian politics is marked by:

The consistent desire of local aristocrats to avoid tyranny

Athenian leaders are:

a. Themistocles developed a navy

b. Cleisthenes created the ten tribes and Council of 500

c. Sonon-sole archon and political reformer

d. NOT Pisistratus-remolded the entire Athenian constitution while utterly neglecting his merchant supporters

Typical of Greek culture in the archaic age was:

Lyric poetry as found in the works of Sappho

Hesiod's famous poem about the pleasures of ordinary work is titled:

Works and Days

The political figure chiefly associated with the establishment of Athenian democratic institutions:

Cleisthenes

The poetry of Sappho reflected:

A woman's homosexual and heterosexual feelings in the world dominated by males

The immediate cause of the Persian Wars was:

A revolt of the Ionian Greek colonies in Asia Minor

At the Battle of Marathon, the Greeks:

The capture of the Persian queen by Aristagoras of Miletus

At the Battle of Thermopylae:

The Spartans fought a noble holding action to the last man

What best describes the Delian League:

An alliance of city-states led by Athens against Persia

During the Age of Pericles:

Athenians became deeply attached to their democratic system

Athenian government under Pericles:

Involved new councils and magistracies enabling ordinary citizens to hold public office

The Peloponnesian War resulted in:

The defeat of Athens and the collapse of its empire

One of the chief causes of the Peloponnesian War was:

Sparta's fear of the power of Athens and its maritime empire

The Greek historian Thucydides differed from Herodotus in that the former:

Was unconcerned with spiritual forces as the factor in history

The Greek dramatist who was a realist and known for his portrayal of real life situations was:

Euripides

Greek comedy:

Was used to express political views as evidence by Aristophanes

The Greek Parthenon:

Is considered the greatest example of classical Greek temple architecture

Greek Architecture:

Was dominated by the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columnar styles

Early Greek philosophy attempted to:

Explain the universe on the basis of unifying principles

The Sophists:

Were professional teachers who seemingly questioned the traditional values of their societies

Socrates was condemned to death for:

Corrupting the youth of Athens

"The unexamined life is not worth living" is a cornerstone of the philosophy of:

Socrates

The Republic depicted:

Plato's idea of the ideal government and society

Greek religion:

a. It was polytheistic

b. It involved ritual and sacrifice

c. Festivities were held to honor the gods

d. NOT myths served no particular social function

The social situation of Greek women:

Women were kept under strict control, cut off from formal education, and were always assigned a male guardian

In classical Athens, male homosexuality:

Was practiced and tolerated in part as a means by which mature men instructed young male about the masculine world of politics and patronage

Paleolithic

consisted of Nomads that collected their food such as berries, while they also consumed and hunted various animals like the bison.

Osiris

egyptian god, usually identified as the god of the afterlife; also one of the river and land deities; killed by is evil brother Seth who cut his body into 14 parts and tossed them into Nile, his wife, Isis, found his body and with the help of other gods restored him to life; by identifying with him one could hope to gain new life, just as Osiris had done

Moses

led the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt

David

one of Saul's lieutenants who reunited the Israelites, defeated the Philistines, and established control over Canaan; also defeated the Moabites

Babylon

sacked in 689 B.C.; built upon the Euphrates; "Gateway to God"; in Mesopotamia

Proverbs

book in the Hebrew Bible that provides a picture of what Hebrews considered a perfect wife

Amos

prophet that made clear that God would punish the Israelites for their sins

Polis

aka city-state; The polis encompassed a town or city and its surrounding countryside. It served as the focus point where its citizens could take park in political, social, and religious activities It also featured as a meeting point and place of refuge when under attack. It later became known as the religious center where citizens where temples and public monuments were placed.

Marathon

important battle (490 B.C.) that consisted of a struggle between the Greeks and the Persians; defeat fo the Persians gave Athenian confidence a tremendous boost

Aristotle

a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great; did not except Plato's theory of ideal Forms

Sophist

group of professional teachers who seemingly questioned the traditional values of their societies; stressed the importance of rhetoric in winning debates; no absolute right or wrong

Pericles

(450 B.C) aristocrat who began to play an important political role; Age of Pericles is when the Athenians became deeply attached to their democratic system; allowed ordinary citizens to participate in public affairs

Acropolis

central meeting point on a hill; served as a place of refuge when under attach; later came to be the religious center where temples and public monuments were erected; an ancient citadel located on a high rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and containing the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon (dedicated to Athenia, the patron goddess of the city)

Because its rivers were unpredictable, farming in Mesopotamia was possible only by constructing ___________ and _________ __________

irrigation & drainage ditches

Mesopotamian city-states may firs have been ruled by _______ and later ruled by ________

priests & kings

Solomon's most famous contribution to Hebrew religion was construction of the ________ in Jerusalem, where the ____ of the ___________ was kept.

Temple , Ark, and Covenant

The Hebrew's were twice held in bondage, first in ______, later in _______. They were freed from the latter by the Persian King _______.

Egypt, Babylon, and Cyrus

The Hebrew's believed their deity, whose name was _________, had made formal ________ with them, under which they were to obey his _____.

Yahweh, covenant, and law

Homor's Iliad chronicles the siege of _____ and how the anger of ________ led to social chaos and military disaster.

Troy and Achilles

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