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What is CCNE?

ensures the quality and integrity of nursing programs
supports and encourages continuing self-assessment by nursing programs
continuing growth and improvement of the program
hold nursing education programs accountable

What is the accreditation of CCNE based on?

continuous quality improvement in nursing programs
inclusion of diverse opinions
review and oversight
trust
innovation
self-improvement
supporting life long learning

How are students involved in CCNE?

CCNE visitors loo at example of student work
observe nursing classes
may vist clinical sites to observe practicum experiences

What is the goal of accreditation?

serves as a statement of good educational practice in the field of nursing

What are Nightingale's beliefs on nurses?

thought that the most important lesson to teach nurses is what to observe, what symptoms indicate improvement and to evaluate evidence carefully

What must girls do to think as a nurse?

think critically because:
it is required by accrediting bodies
essential for successfully answering questions on NCLEX
success and survival as a nurse

AHRQ

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

What does AHRQ do?

federal government agency concerned with the quality of our health care
mission is to improve the quality, saftey, efficiency and effectiveness of health care for all Americans
supports research that helps people make more informed decisions and improves quality of health care services

What are the goals and focus of AHRQ?

The goal of their research is measurable improvements in health care in America , in terms of quality of life and patient outcomes, lives save, and value gained for what we spend

How does AHRQ achieve these goals?

1. Safety and Quality: reduced the risk of harm by promoting delivery of the best possible health care
2. Effectiveness: Improve health care outcomes by encouraging the use of evidence to make informed health care decisions
Efficiency: transform research into practice to facilitate wider access to effective health care services and reduce unncessary costs

Who are AHRQ's customers?

clinicians and other health care providers
consumers and patients
health care policymakers
purchasers, payers such insurers
other halth officials such as hospital systems and medical school faculty

Concept

a general notion or idea
an idea of something formed by mentally combining all its characteristics
a directly conceived or intuited object

How to think Conceptually

use the nursing process to solve problems ADPIE
knowledge is god, but remember to the process it
consider the evidence and logic to support ideas
be open to different viewpoints
separate relevant info from irrelevant
define frame of reference (context)

Critical Thinking characteristics

asking why, why not, how?
testing motives, bias, incompleteness
formulation and testing of hypotheses
if, then statements and conditions
pattern recognition
analysis and synthesis

Benefits of critical thinking in teams

different set of eyes
promotes time management
improves quality on a unit
increases customer service
fine-tuning nursing practices

Consequences of not using teamwork

missed observations
injuries
reduced enthusiasm
changes attitudes

What knowledge is key to nursing practice?

knowledge of anatomy
knowledge of the body's physiologic processes
pharmacology
technical skills
critical thinking pulls these together

Carper's Ways of Knowing

Empirical-factual knowledge from science
Personal-knowledge of moral questioning and choices
Aesthetic- awareness of the immediate situations

What are the aspects of Empirical (Carper's Ways of Knowing)

memorization: helpful for certain situations
nursing classes build on previous coursework: need to obtain info
best to study with expectation that purpose of learning is to apply info, solve problems, and make decisions

What is expected in Lab and clinicals?

applying knowledge
practicing hands-on skills
accepting feedback: defensiveness arises from feeling the need to perfect and limits your ability to learn
looking and acting professional

Four types of questions: Bloom's Taxonomy

Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analysis

Knowledge questions

fact-based, important for learning details

Comprehension questions

requires connecting pieces of info-skill necessary for problem solving

Application questions

deciding which course of action is best

Analysis Questions

must use multiple concepts to derive accurate conclusion

What are some other Ways of knowing important to nursing?

empathy
stereotypes
listening to patients
intuition

Aspects of personal (2nd carper's ways of knowing)

emapthy:
imagining one's self in patient's position

Aspects of ethical (3rd carper's ways of knowing)

Stereotypes:
popular belief about specific types of people
nurses must be aware of their bias which usually based on previous influences and experiences
key is to not act on a bias in a negative manner, but to consider each situation

Listening to the Patients

patient is the expert on themselves
think about the meaning behind the words
ask open-ended questions
what are the patients actions you?

aspects of Aesthetic (4th carper's ways of knowing)

intution is an example
recognizing patterns using subtle cues that are not apparent to all, often descibed as something wrong before overt signs appear

Intuition

skill that can be improved by practice

The Nursing Process

Assessing
Analyzing
Planning
Implementing
Evaluating

Assessing

gather data

Analyzing

identify problem
formulate nursing diagnosis

Planning

write care plan to meet goals

Implementing

carry out plan

Evaluating

collect objective data to determine the extent to which goals were acheived
revise plan as needed

What is the nursing process?

an organizational framework for the practice of nursing
orderly, systematic
central to all nursing are
encomasses all steps taken by the nurse

Definition of nursing process

organized sequence of problem-solving steps used to identify and to manage the health problems of clients
accepted by ANA for clinical practice

Benefits of nursing process

provides an orderly and systematic method for planning and providing care
enhances nursing efficiency by standards
facilitates documentation of care
provides a unity of language for the nursing profession
is economical
stresses the independent function of nurses
increases the care quality through the use of actions

ADPIE

Assessment
Diagnosis
Planning
Implementation
Evaluation

Characteristic of nursing process

within the legal scope of nursing
based on knowledge-requiring thinking
organized and systematic
client centered
goal directed
prioritized
dynamic

Benefits of using the nursing process

continuity of care
individualized care
standards of care
increased client participation
collaboration of care

Assessment

Observation
Interview: types of questions, environment, spiritual considerations
Examination

Types of data to collect

objective date-observable and measure facts SIGNS
subjective data-info that only the client feels and can describe SYMPTOMS

Sources of data

primary source: client
secondary source: clients family, reports, test results, info in current and past medical records and other health care workers

Verifying Data

measurable data
double check personal observations
double check equipment
check with experts and team
recheck outliers
compare objective and subjective data
clarify statements

Planning

process of prioritizing nursing diagnoses and problems
identify measurable goals or outcomes
select appropriate internventions
documenting the plan of care
nurse consults with client while developing and revising the plan

Guidelines for Setting Priorities

address immediate life threatening issues
safety concerns
patient-identified issues
nurse identified priorities based on overall picture, and avalible time and resources
determine problems that require immediate action

Nurse Identified Priorities

composite of all patient's strengths and health concerns
moral and ethical issues
time, resources, setting
hierachy of needs
interdisciplinary planning

Communicating the plan

nurse share the plan of care with nursing team members, client and client's family
plan is permanent part of record

Selecting intervations

involves planning measures that the client and nurse will accomplish
nurse selects strategies based on the knowledge that certain nursing actions produce desire effects
must be safe and within the legal scope of nursing practice

Evaluation

way nurses determine whether a client has reached a goal
evaluation includes the analysis of the client's response
helps to determine the effectiveness of nursing care

Standerized Nursing Language

accepted by the ANA
supports the learning of the nursing process
provides consistency
develops critical thinking skills
improves communication
research based

NANDA

Nursing Diagnosis: Definitions and Classifications

NIC

Nursing Interventions Classifications

NOC

Nursing Outcomes Classification

What is NOC?

a classification of nurse sensitive outcomes
outcomes and indicators allow for measure ment of the patient, family or community at any point on a continuum fromst most negative to positive

NANDA/NOC Relationship

Each nursing diagnosis is followed by a list of suggested outcomes to measure whether it helped the problem
Each outcome can individualized to the patient or family by choosing the appropriate indicators or adding more

NIC

comprehensive, standardized language describing treatments that nurses perform in all settings and in all specialties

NANDA/NIC Relationship

each NANDA diagnosis is followed by interventions needed to resolve the problem
interventions should be chosen to meet the client needs

with

c, with a line over it

without

s, with a line over it

before

a, with a line over it

after

p, with a line over it

PO

by mouth

What is the difference between short-term and chronic anxiety?

Short-term stress is an immediate problem Chronic stress is unabated stress that is long term

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