5 chordate synapomorphies
notochord, single/dorsal/tubular nerve cord, pharyngeal pouches/slits, endostyle, postanal tail
Each organism on this final is in which phylum
3 subdivisions of chordata w/ examples what level of taxonomic classification?
urochordata = ascidians. cephalochordata=amphioxus. Vertebrata=vertebrates. subphylums.
outgroup to vertebrata
sister taxa to vertebrata
2 Subdivisions of vertebrata? taxonomic level?
agnathans and gnathostomes, clades
3 subdivisions of agnathans and taxonomic level. Which subdivision is extinct?
ostracoderms/myxini/cephalaspidomorphi. Class level. ostracoderms extinct
2 examples of extant agnathans and their class
myxini= hagfish and cephalaspidomorphi = lampreys
agnatha is which type of clade? and why?
paraphyletic, gnathostomes not included
ostracoderms are which type of clade?
paraphyletic, gnathstomes not included
name 3 gnathostome clades, which is extinct?
placodermi, chondricthyes, teleostomi. placodermi extinct
most basal gnathostome clade
3 types of organisms in chondricthyes
2 divisions of chondricthyes and their members
elasmobranchii (sharks/rays) and holocephalii(chimaeras)
3 teleostomi subdivisions. which is extinct? What taxonomic level are the division?
acanthodii, osteichthys, tetrapoda. Acanthodii extinct. superclasses
what type of clade are each of the 3 teleostomi subdivision
acanthodii/tetrapoda = monophyletic. osteichtyes=paraphyletic
osteicthys is what kind of clade? and why?
paraphyletic b/c tetrapods not included
8 divisions of gnathostomata and taxonomic level
placodermi, chondricthyes, actinopterygii, sarcopterygii, amphibia, reptilia, aves, mammals, classes
4 divisions of tetrapoda and their taxonomic level.
amphibia, reptilia, aves, mammals. classes
2 divisions of osteicthyes, defining characteristics and taxonomic level
actinopterygii (ray finned) and sarcopterygii(lobe/flesh finned), classes
2 subdivisons of actinopterygii and examples
neopterygii and chondrostei (sturgeons/bichirds/paddlefishes)
clade containing 96% of fish and half of vertebrates
teleostei clade containied within which subclass
4 teleostei characteristics
gas bladder and suction of feeding via neg pressure of buccal cavity, homocertail tail, ctenoid scales
3 divisions of sarcopterygii. examples and which is extinct
dipnoi = lungfishes. Actinistia =coelocanths. and rhipidistia, extinct
tetrapod lineage began from which fish lineage and give example
subdivision of amphibia
5 lissamphibia synapomorphies
naked moist skin with poison/mucous glands, no nails claws, buccopharyngeal air pump, metamorphosis, bulbi muscles control eyes
3 subdivisions of lissamphibia
caudata, anura, gymnophiona(caelians),
largest salamander family
lungless, depends on respiration via skin
solid skull for fossorial habit, long slender and legless, eyes covered w/ skin and bone, derived, tentacle lubricated by harderian gland
3 subvidivisions of amnoites. which is extinct?
anapsida/diapsida/synapsida. anapsida extinct
amniotes 2 synapomorphies
amniotic egg/lungs ventilated by neg pressure
all amniotes are contained within
3 diapsid subdivisions
lepidosauria, archosauria, testudines
all modern reptiles but crododiles and turtles.
2 lepidosauria subdivisions. examples of each
rhycocephalia tuatara and squamata serpents/lacertilia/amphisbaenians
most basal lepidosauria lineage
sister taxon to squamata
worm lizzards, akinetic skull and fossorial habit
lacertilia is paraphyletic when
snakes/amphisbaenians not included
pterosaurs, birds, and crocodylians are included in
aves subdivision and characteristic
neornithes, all extant
neornithes 2 subdivisions and characteristics
paleo (flightless) and neognathes (flight)
theropods are a division of which amniote division
3 synapsida lineages
pelycosaurs, therapsids, cynodonts
pelycosaurs what kind of clade and why?
paraphyletic, therapsis not included
therapsids what kind of clade and why?
paraphyletic, cynodonts not included
cynodonts what kind of clade and why?
paraphyletic, mammals not included
mammal lineage diverged from which synapsid lineage?
most basal necked vert lineage
includes several extinct lineages plus lissamphibia
tridobatracus relationship to modern anurans
chordata, agnatha, gnathostomes, temnospondylii, lissamphibia
ancestral chordate resembles
t/f mammals are only synapsids
t/f snakes, lizzards and amphisbaenians are clades
t/f ampullae of lorenzini found in all fish
false, cartilaginous fish
why aren't amphibians amniotes?
no terrestrial adapted egg