Genetics

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Mitosis

Cell division, resulting in two cells that each have the diploid number of chromosomes and are just like the original cell.

Meiosis

The process a cell's nucleus must go through to make sex cells (gametes) with half the number of chromosomes present compared to the original cell.

Chromosome

A threadlike strand of DNA found in the nucleus of the cell that carries genes and transmits hereditary information.

Gene

The basic unit of inheritance on a chromosome,which determine the structure and function of all components of the body.

Allele

One of the variant forms of a gene at a particular location, on a chromosome.

Codon

A three nucleotide sequence on a stand of mRNA that gets translated into a specific amino acid forming a protein.

Genome

The complete genetic information of an organism.

Genotype

The combination of genes/alleles of an organism represented by letters.

Phenotype

The appearance or expression in an organism due to its combination of alleles.

Sexual

Requiring two gametes to reproduce

Asexual

Reproduction without a partner

Gamete

A sex cell

Homozygous

Having identical alleles for a single trait.

Heterozygous

Having two different alleles for a single trait.

Hybrid

An organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock

Cloning

Production of a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell

Watson and Crick

Two of the scientists responsible for the determination of the double helix shape of DNA

Mendel

Austrian monk known as the "father of genetics" for his work with pea plants

Biotechnology

Techniques used by scientists to modify deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or the genetic material of a micro-organism plant or animal in order to achieve a desired trait that is of benefit to humans

DNA Fingerprinting

A process which uses fragments of DNA to identify the unique genetic makeup of an individual.

Diploid

Number of chromosomes in most cells except the gametes.

Haploid

Having only half the normal complement of genes

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