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(Chapter 2) If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release ___ into your bloodstreem

epinephrine

The parasympathetic nervous system ____ digestion and ____ heartbeat

accelerates; decelerates

Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?

frontal

In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal within a single neuron travels from the:

dendrites to the cell body to the axon

You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the:

sympathetic nervous system

After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficulty:

playing the guitar

If a picture of a comb is briefly flashed in the left visual field of a split brain patient, she should be able to:

use her left hand to draw the picture of the comb

Which of the following body parts is associated with the greatest amount of brain tissue in the motor cortex?

face

Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex

thalamus

Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter:

dopamine

EEG is to CT Scan as:

amplified recording of brain waves is to x-ray photography

The sequence of brain regions from oldest to newest is:

brainstem; limbic system; cerebral cortex

Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by:

irritability

The body's natural production of endorphins is likely to be ___ by heroin use and ___ by acupuncture

decreased; increased

An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to:

depression

Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter known as:

acetylcholine

The experience of auditory hallucinations by people with schizophrenia is most closely linked with the activation of areas in their:

temporal lobes

Reuptake refers to the:

reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron

After Paul's serious snow-skiing accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Wernicke's area. Because of the damage, Paul is most likely to experience difficulty in:

understanding what others are saying

In order to identify which of Lucy's brain areas was msot active when she talked, neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a:

PET Scan

Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?

parietal

The occipital lobes are to ___ as the temporal lobes are to ___

seeing; hearing

The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the:

medulla

Olds and Milner located "pleasure centers" in the brain structure known as the:

sensory cortex

Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the formation of new memories?

Hippocampus

(Chapter 5&6) As an airplane descended for landing, the pilot saw several beautiful islands that appeared to float in a vast expanse of blue ocean water. In this instance, the ocean is a:

ground

During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Dahl could hardly ever detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Dahl's

absolute threshold

The visual cliff is a lab device for testing ___ in infants:

depth perception

Research with distorting goggles best supports the view of human perception advanced by

Locke

After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates

sensory adaptation

Which theory would suggest that watching a horrer movie late at night could lower your absolute threshold for sound as you subsequently tried to fall asleep?

signal detection theory

Which of the following is a binocular cue of perception of distance

convergence

News about the supposed effects of briefly presented messages on moviegoers' consumption of popcorn and coca-cola involved false claims regarding:

subliminal stimulation

John Locke is to Immanuel Kant as ___ is to ___

nature; nurture

A psychophysicist would be most directly concerned with

the relation between the wavelength of light and experience of color

If an adult who was blind from birth gains the ability to see, that person would have the greatest difficulty visually distinguishing

circles from squares

The sequentially flashing Christmas tree lights appeared to generate pulsating waves of motion. This best illustrates

the phi phenomenon

Relative height is a cue involving our perception of objects higher in our field of vision as:

farther away

The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the

absolute threshold

The monocular depth cue in which an object blocking another object is perceived as closer is

interposition

OJay claims that his special psychic powers enable him to perceive exactly where the body of a recent murder victim is buried. OJay is claiming to possess the power of

clairvoyance

The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion for their difference to be perceived is known as

Weber's law

The perceptual tendency to fill gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called

closure

Sensation is to ___ as perception is to ___

detection; interpretation

Psychics who have worked with police departments in an effort to solve difficult crimes have demonstrated the value of

all of the above

When the soundtract for the movie "Woodstock" is played in the back of a classroom, students tend to perceive the sound as originating from the picture screen in the front of the room. This best illustrates

visual capture

When listening to the end of the song "Strawberry Fields Forever", people often perceive a voice declaring "I buried Paul" only if specifically forewarned what to listen for. This best illustrates the dangers of

Perceptual set

The news headline read "Local Prostitutes Appeal to City Mayor." Most readers immediately recognized that this was not a reference to the mayor's sexual desires. This best illustrates the value of

Perceptual set

Gestalt psychologists emphasize that

the whole is more than the sum of its parts

Holding two index fingers in front of the eyes can create the perception of a floating finger sausage. This best illustrates the effect of

retinal disparity

(Chapter 3) A behavior geneticise would mostly be interested in studying hereditary influences on

personality traits

Maria cooks because she learned that this was expected of women. This illustrates importance of

gender roles

Classifying toys as masculine and feminine illustrates the process of

gender typing

Evolutionary psychology would suggest that parents are genetically to have strongest grief over the death of

adolescent sons

genes are to chromosomes as ___ are to ___

words; books

Genes are to perpetuation of individuals as __ are to the perpetuation of cultures

memes

Elton's daughter fights and he says "good girls don't fight" and his son fights and he says "did you win". Elton's gender typing reactions would be of interest to

social learning theorists

Studies of identical twins that have been reared apart highlight the importance of ___ in personality development

genetic predispositions

Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute gender differences in attitudes to casual sex to the fact that men have ___ than do women

greater reproductive potential

We're likely to ___ personality similarities among children in the same family and likely to ___ personality similarities between parents and children

overestimate; overestimate

Frans avoids talking with food in his mouth because others think it is rude. This best illustrates

norms

Genetic influences on personality traits are highlighted by comparing ___ with ____

identical twins reared together; fraternal twins reared together

Carl and Shirley are both mentally retarded because their mothers drank while they were pregnant. This shows the influence of

prenatal enviornment

According to gender schema theory, children become gender typed because

we percieve to much of reality in terms of masculine and feminine

Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to predict

children are not likely to be abused by their biological parents

At three months, Kevin is removed from the home of his abusive biological parents and placed in a house with good adoptive parents. As kevin matures he'll probably develop

higher levels of intelligence than his biological father

female children exposed to testosteron during prenatal development are called tomboys. These children

may be treated like boys because they look more masculine

Babies with intense and highly reactive temperament are

irritable and unpredictable

In which countries do people genereally prefer to maintain the largest area of personal space

England

Boys outnumber girls at ___ levels of reading and at ____ levels of math

low, high

Heredability of specific traits will be greatest among genetically ____ individuals who have been raised in ____ enviornments

dissimilar; similar

Children from impoverished enviornments with stimulating educational experiences during early childhood are most likely to

prevent degeneration of activated connections between neurons

Because Maila is the first girl in her fourth grade class to sexually mature, she is teased. Maila's social isolation and embarassment are from

nature and nurture

Enviornmental influences on personality traits are highlighted by comparing ____ and ____

identical twins reared together; identical twins reared apart

adopted children raised in the same family aren't likely to have similar personalities so we should be cautious about attributing personality to

parental influences

(Chapter 7) At 1:00 AM, Tyler gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk, an EEG brain activity is most likely to indicate the presence of

Delta waves

When cocaine is snorted, it produces a rush of euphoria by

blocking the reuptake of dopamine

Night terrors

usually occur in the first few hours of sleep

The belief that death involves the liberation of the soul from a bodily prison illustrates

dualism

the best indication that dreaming serves a necessary biological function is provided by the fact that

most mammals experience REM rebound

Jack remembered a recent dream in which his girlfriend suddenly grabbed the wheel of his speeding car which symbolized saving the couple from sexual disaster. Freud would say he is attempting to reveal the ___ of his dream

latent content

REM sleep is ____ by alcohol and ____ by sleeping pills

inhibited; inhibited

Orne and Evans discovered that unhypnotized subjects performed the same dangerous acts as hypnotize subjects. Hypnosis involves

conscience role playing

Near death experiences are

quite similar to drug induced hallucinogenic experiences

People can be hypnotically induced to

report significant relief of ice water

During full nights of sleep you spend more time in ___ sleep than ___ sleep

REM, Stage 4

Soon after taking a psychoactive drug, Zachary experienced a diminished appetite, an increased pulse rate, dialated pupils, and feelings of self-confidence and euphoria. Zach experienced the effects of

cocaine

As Inge recalled her dream, she was dancing with a tall, dark gentleman when suddenly the music shifted to loud rock and the man dissappeared. Freud would say this represents the ___ content of her dream

manifest

Which of the following is a psychoactive drug

LSD

Compared to young women, young men are ___ likely to report dreams of sex and are ___ likely to dream about members of the same sex

more; More

Compared to their white counterparts, black have ___ rates of alcohol use and ___ rates of cocaine use

lower; lower

the theory that dreams help to solidify our memories of daytime experiences is supported by the finding that

people deprived of REM sleep remember less of certain pre-sleep information than other stages

28 year old Theodore has an irrational fear of dogs. His therapist hypnotizes him and asks him to mentally relive his earliest childhood experience with a dog. The therapist is making use of

age regression

Bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia is

drink wine 15 minutes before bed

Amphetimines ___ appetite and ___ self-confidence

decrease; increase

Joan's dentist used hypnosis when he filled a cavity. He didn't feel any pain but raised hand if there was pain. Hynosis involves

dissociation

Which of the following has been presented as evidence that alcoholism is genetically influenced

children whose parents abuse alcohol have high tolerance

Which of the following is an amphetamine derivative that acts as a mild hallucinogen

ecstacy

After a stressful day at the office, Arthur has 5-6 drinks at a local bar before going home for dinner. This will affect his ability to remember

the next day the names of people at the bar and what he said while drinking

Francois was dismayed to discover that some of his football teammates were using drugs to enhance footwork and endurance. What were they using?

amphetimines

(chapter 4) Sia vacillates between acting rebellious toward her parents and high school teachers and behaving with compliance and respect. Erikson would have suggested that Sia's inconsistancy illustrates

role confusion

Avoiding physical punishment is to ___ morality as respecting laws of society is to ___ morality

preconventional; conventional

Young Jeezy disapproves of stealing jelly beans from his sister's Easter basket because he thinks his mother will spank him if he does. Jeezy best represents a ___ morality

preconventional

Harlow observed that most monkeys raised in total isolation

were incapable of mating upon reaching sexual maturity

Men are typically ___ socially independent and ___ interested in religion than women

more; less

Rumor has it that Adele is beginning to develop a fear of strangers and will reach for her mother when she sees someone who is unfamiliar. It is likely that Adele has just

developed a sense of object permanence

Ten-Year-Old Nicki is maturing early and already towers over all the girls and most of the boys in her fifth-grade class. Nicki is likely to be

the object of some teasing

A student who does not cheat on tests because he does not want to violate classroom rules is in Kohlberg's ___ stagew

conventional

Adults are ___ likely to divorced in their early forties than in their early twenties. They are___ likely to commit suicide in their early forties than in their early seventies

less; less

Primary sex characteristics are to ___ as secondary sex characteristitcs are to ___

female ovaries; deepend male voice

In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with an insecure maternal attachment are most likely to

show indifference to their mother's return after a brief absence

authoritarian parents demonstrate ___ levels of parental control and ___ levels of parental responsiveness

high; low

Research on the elderly has shown that

they become increasingly prone to car accidents

According to Erikson, the elderly can most effectively cope with the prospect of thier own death if they have achieved a sense of

integrity

A person who thinks it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because one might get punished for doing so is demonstrating Kohlberg's ___ stage of morality

preconventional

Flo is a 70-year-old retired entertainer. In contrast to when he was 20, he now probably

is less susceptible to catching colds

In surveying women who either had or had not yet experienced menopause, researchers have discovered that

postmenopausal women frequently agree that after menopause women feel better than they have for years

On which of the following tasks are 55-year-old adults most likeloy to perform just as effectively as they could 30 years earlier?

writing a story

"if you're really concerned about the rights and dignity of women," Tyga asked his older brother, "how can you justify buying pornographic magazines?" Tyga's question indicates that he is in the ___ stage of development

formal operational

Kanye and Kim's third and last child is leaving home for college next year. Their empty nest is likely to be a ____ place

happy

Gotye has no meaningful occupational goals and has switched college majors several times. Erikson would have suggested that Gotye lacks

identity

Mrs. Jonas cut Nick's hot dog into eight pieces and Kevin's into six pieces. Kevin cried because he felt he wasn't getting as much hot dog as Nick. Piaget would say that Kevin doesn't understand the principle of

conservation

Acording to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the ___ stage is to the ___ stage

preoperational; concrete operational

The first time that 4-year-old Wiz saw his older brother play a flute, he thought it was simply a large whistle. Wiz's initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process of

assimilation

Compared to a century ago, menarche occurs ___ in life and adult independence begins ___ in life

earlier; later

(chapter 8) Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ____ reinforcer

negative

What is the greatest danger associated with using small bribes to entice children to read good books?

the overjustification effect

Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ____ schedule of reinforcement

fixed-ratio

Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of

discrimination

2-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Philip's newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of

generalization

The tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on TV best illustrates the importance of

modeling

In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experience served to illustrate the importance of

observational learning

Which of the following is an unconditioned response

sweating in hot weather

Money is to food as ___ is to ___

secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer

BF Skinners work elaborated what EL Thorndike had called

the law of effect

Which of the following behaviors is typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule?

inserting coins in a slot machine

The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ___ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulant is to ___

punishment; reinforcement

In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of roses after roses are presented with electric shock. In this fictional example, the presentation of the roses is the

conditioned stimulus

The lowest rates of operant responding are associated with the ___ schedule of reinforcement

variable-ratio

For the most rapid acquisition of CR, the CS should be presented ____ the UCS

shortly before

Pavlolov noticed that dogs began sallivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight fo this person was a

conditioned stimulus

A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of a lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a

CS

After he was spanked on several occasions by his mother for spilling milk, Colin developed a strong fear of his mother. In this case, spanking is a ___ for Colins fear

Unconditioned stimulus

Jacinda has a glass of wine after work because it relieves her anxiety. Her wine drinking is likely to continue because it is followed by a ___ reinforcer

negetive

Janna's behavior is more strongly influenced by the momentary thrill of unprotected sex than by the prospect of an unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease. This best illustrates the impact of

immediate reinforcement

The loss of intrinsic motivation for engaging in an activity is a central characteristic of

the overjustification effect

Who introduced the term behaviorism?

Watson

A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presented shortly ___ an appropriate ___

before; UCS

Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was presented with a loud noise. In this case, the loud noise was the

unconditioned stimulus

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