2012 Modern World History Final Exam Study Guide (CP1)

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Ms. Galvin World History- Jason McCarthy FHS Class of 2015

MAIN Causes of WWI

Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism

Black Hand

..., the Serbian terrorist group that planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand, part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing South Slav populations (Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, Slovenes, etc) annexed by Austria-Hungary.

Austrian Archduke Ferdinand

..., powerful person in Austria-Hungary.
-goes to Serbia and throws himself a parade.
-gets assasinated

Schlieffen Plan

..., Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.

Allied vs Central Powers

... two sides fighting in world war 1, Allies- Great Britain, France, Russia; Japan + Italy joined later

Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary; Bulgaria + Ottoman Empire joined later

Stalemate

...Term used to describe the deadlock on the Western Front during the First World War.

Trench warfare

..., Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.

Propaganda

..., information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.

Total War

..., a war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.

Treaty of Versailles

..., Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.

Czar Nicholas II/Romanovs

became Czar of Russia in 1894
-made LOTS of mistakes
-Russo-Japanese War
-WWI
-Bloody Sunday
Last Czar of Russia

Rasputin

..., Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence?).

Communism

..., Official ideology of the Soviet Union, characterized there by complete government ownership of land and property, single-party control of the government, the lack of individual rights, and the call for worldwide revolution

Lenin

..., founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.

Bolsheviks

..., Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin's leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution. (See also Lenin, Vladimir.) (p. 761)

Peace, Land, and Bread

..., The slogan used by Lenin to win the support of the people; Peace appealed to the soldiers; Land appealed to the peasants; and Bread appealed to the workers.

New Economic Plan

..., Plan implemented by Lenin that allowed some private ownership of businesses and small plots of land.

Totalitarianism

a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Joseph Stalin

..., Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

5 Year plans

..., Stalin outlined the first of several Five-Year Plans for the development of the Soviet Union's economy. The Five-Year Plans set impossibly high quotas, or numerical goals, to increase the output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity. To reach these targets, the government limited production of consumer goods. As a result, people faced severe shortages of housing, food, clothing, and other necessary goods.

Command Economy

..., economic system in which a central authority is in command of the economy; a centrally planned economy

Collective farms

..., government owned farms, workers were paid by government and they shared profits from products

Great Purge

..., The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.

Mao Zedong

..., This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.

Communist vs Nationalist

..., Nationalists ruled- Communists wanted to take over
-fought each other

Chinese Civil War

..., Conflict between communists led by Mao TseTung and nationalist leader Chiang Kai Shek - Mao was the popular leader; US supported Chiang Kai Shek because he was anticommunist but corrupt; Nationalists defeated and fled to Taiwan which US recognized as legitimate government of China

Gandhi

..., was a champion of Indian immigrant workers against white South African bigotry and discrimination. He had peaceful protests called Satyagraha. In 1921, he received the full authority of the Indian National Congress. He encouraged civil disobedience against the British. He united all social classes and religions of India. He spoke in favor of women and the Untouchables; political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule

Civil Disobedience

..., opposing a law one considers unjust by peacefully disobeying it and accepting the resultant punishment.

Boycotts

..., protests in which people refuse to buy someone's merchandise or use someone's services

Amritsar Massacre

..., April 3rd of 1919. British soldiers killed close to 400 unarmed Indian men, women, and children, and wounded 1,100 more. People had gathered in the center of town to protest British occupation of their country, and to demand equality. This was a turning point in British domination of India. Independence movements became very popular and eventually forced India's independence.

Salt March

..., passive resistance campaign of Mohandas Gandhi where many Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt.

Weimar Republic (Germany)

..., democracy seemed to take root in 1923, convinced that economic prosperity demanded good relations with the Western powers, elections held regularly

Inflation

..., a persistent, substantial rise in the general level of prices related to an increase in the volume of money and resulting in the loss of value of currency

Reparations

..., As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.

The Great Depression

..., the period from 1929-1940 was marked by a worldwide depression. in the united states, the period began with a crash of the stock market in 1929 ironically, WWII brought an end to the great depression.

Fascism (Benito Mussolini)

..., Political movement in which the government rules by terror and by appealing to racism and nationalism. Mussolini became Italy's dictator in 1922 by promising to build a new Roman empire.

Natzism

..., the racist/nationalistic, expantionists philosophy of hitler was called militarism, fascism, natzism, or communism

Nuremberg Laws

..., Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.

Anti-Semitism

..., policies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against Jews

Appeasement

..., A policy toward Hitler adopted by the leauge of nations to avoid another war

Munich Conference

..., 1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.

Japanese Expansion

..., between 1972 and 1925 Japan's population doubled. Japan needed larger markets for its products. Japan pursued a policy of expansion in the Pacific to meet these needs and to ease overcrowding. during WW1 Japan supported their allies. the conference of 1921 cost Japan most of its gain in China and limited Japan's naval power.

Axis Countries

Germany, Italy, Japan

Allied Countries

Great Britain-Winston Churchill, Soviet Union-Joseph Stalin, US-Franklin Roosevelt

Blitzkrieg

..., "Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939

Battle of Britain

..., an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.

Rationing

..., Taking items that are in short supply and distributing them according to a system. For instance, during World War II, gas, sugar, and butter were a few of the items rationed in the United States.

Total War

..., a war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.

The Holocaust

..., The Holocaust took place in Europe between 1993 and 1945. Six million Jews were systematically and brutally murdered by the Nazis and their collaberators. Miliions of non-Jews, including Roma and Sinti(Gypsies), Serbs, political dissidents, people with disabilities, homosexuals and Jehova's Witnesses, were also persecuted by the Nazis.

Genocide

..., systematic killing of a racial or cultural group

Ghettoes

..., Walled up cities were Jews and others were forced to live.

The Final Solution

..., Nazi Germany's plan and execution of its systematic genocide against European jews during World War II.

Concentration Camps

..., prison camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately.

Atomic Bombs

..., The United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the led the Japanese to surrender and helped bring and end to WWII

Hiroshima & Nagasaki

..., nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman

Cold War

..., A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.

The Iron Curtain

..., took physical form in the shape of border defenses between the countries of the western and eastern Europe. These were some of the most heavily militarized areas in the world, particularly the so-called inner German border.

Containment

..., a U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances

Truman Doctrine

..., First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.

NATO and Warsaw pact

..., NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) agreement between West European states to provide mutual assistance if any one of them was attacked. the Warsaw Pact was the military alliance including all Communist states

Berlin Blockade and Airlift

..., In 1948, Berlin was blocked off by the Soviet Union in order to strangle the Allied forces. In order to combat this, the United States began to airlift supplies into Berlin.

Sputnik

..., First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.

Mao Zedong

..., This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.

Great Leap Forward

..., China's second five-year plan under the leadership of the impatient Mao, it aimed to speen up economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialitst society. This plan failed and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960.

Cultural Revolution

..., Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.(p. 848)

Red Gaurds

supporters of Mao during a cultural revolution

Korean War

..., The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.

38th Parallel

..., latitudinal line that divided North and South Korea at approximatly the midpoint of the peninsula

Vietnam War

..., A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.

Domino Theory

..., the idea that if a nation falls under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall under Communist control.

Ho Chi Minh

..., 1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable

Fidel Castro

..., Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and has been president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party since 1976.

Cuban Missile Crisis

..., Brink-of-war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the latter's placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba.

detente

..., French word meaning an easing of tensions between the world's superpowers during the Cold War

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

..., A nine-year conflict involving Soviet forces supporting the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan government against the Mujahideen resistance.

Mikhail Gorbachev

..., Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)

Perestroika

..., a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society

Glasnost

..., Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.

Democratization

..., the spread of representative government to more countries and the process of making governments more representative

Poland (Lech Walesa)

..., "Solidarity" labor union started the whole wave of satellite revolts against communism. Organized massive strikes - government negotiated, allowed first free elections in 1989. Organized the Gdansk Shipyard strike.

Vaclev Havel

..., • Playwright in Czechoslovakia
• Plays were banned
• Became president
• Censorship is less about the works about themselves and more with the political environment at the time

Fall of Berlin Wall

..., This event in 1989 marked the symbolic end of the Cold War and was the begining of the collapse of communism in eastern Europe.

Boris Yeltsin

First leader of the Russian Republic. HIs pro-democracy reaction when Gorbachev's push for reform was held off by the Communist establishment was a rallying point for Russian democratic supporters.

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