Bone has a rich _____ supply that runs through it, in contrast to cartilage.
within a bones firm intercellular matrix there are cells called ______.
these osteocytes live in _____.
______ interconnect the lacunae which therefore connects the osteocytes.
canaliculi (look like little cracks or canals)
_____ & _____ are cells found on the surface of bone.
osteoblasts & osteoclasts
_____ are bone forming (depositing matrix).
_____ break bones down or thins them out.
osteoblasts / osteoclasts
if you don't take in enough dietary _____ your body will take it from your bones.
_____ start out as osteoblasts but become what they are once they are trapped by their own matrix.
what are the two processes that lead to the production of bone?
intramembranous ossification and endochondrial ossification
*both result in the same thing
Bones that are formed by intramembranous ossification are called _____. what is this kind of bone derived from?
membrane bone / mesenchyme
_____ bone is the temporary state of a bone before it is fully formed. the end product is _____ bone.
woven / lamellar
Most bones are formed by ______. Bone is first formed by a model of ____ and then it is converted to bone.
endochondrial ossification / cartilage
perichondrium is converted to periosteum and the cartilage there is going to be replaced by _____. this ossification is called a _____. A cavity is formed in the bone collar by ______. then the _____ system invades the space. ____ are now on the inside and the outside and start forming bone.
bone / bone collar / digesting away the cartilage / vascular / osteoblasts
what becomes bone first: the epiphyses or diaphysis?
the thin cartilage that separates the epiphyses from the diaphysis is called the ______.
the cartilage is going to be thickened in between the epiphyses and diaphysis in order to ______. Then the cartilage is converted into ____.
make the bone longer / bone
*this process is extending the bone as a hollow structure
as matrix is being adding to the outside of the bone, making the diameter larger, ____ are eroding the inside of the bone.
what is vascualr tissue's intercellular matrix?
Formed elements in the plasma are...
erythrocytes, leucocytes, thrombocytes, platelets (which are thrombocytes)
erythrocytes are _____. what is their general function?
red blood cells (lack a nucleus) / gas exchange
leucocytes are ____.
white blood cells
____ are pieces of a cell, and their general function is to plug up leaks.
originally you are made up of a single cell called a ____.
Zygotes first have to decide whether it wants to be ____ or _____. Then ____, ____, or _____.
embryonic or extraembryonic / ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm
*see chart on pg 1 of development slides
the ____ eventually gives rise to your vertebral column. the hole in the body tube is called the _____. the _____ surrounds it.
body tube / coelum / serous membrane
the ____ runs through the coelum. another ____ surrounds it.
gut tube / serous membrane
the ____ period is the first 8 weeks of life.
Look at adult body plan slides
DORSAL BODY WALL
In forming the ____, you must have bone, muscle, and skin.
True or False: girls are born with the most eggs they are ever going to have.
the egg is otherwise know as the ____.
After the blister is popped, The ovum is projected through the ______ and then the _____ catches the ovum. Fertilization takes place in the _____.
fallopian tube / ova duct / top 1/3 of the ova duct
*see ovulation video
_____ has a head made of DNA and tail made of flagellum.
cell division during development is called ____. during this processes the cells become ____ after each division.
cleavage / smaller
When the embryo has 32-64 cells its in the ____ stage. As the cells continue to divide past this, it becomes a ______.
morula / blastocyst
Inside the blastocyst is a group of cells called the ____.
Intercellular mass (ICM)
the ____ are in the outer wall of the blastocyst and contribute to the placenta.
the ____ is the space inside the blastocyst.
when the blastocyst arrives at the uterus _____ occurs.
in the ICM, there are two spaces that develop, each surrounded by _____. Where the two spaces come together is called a _____. some of the cells of this help develop the ___.
a single layer of cells / bilaminar disc / embryo
the bilaminar disc sits between the ____ & ____.
amniotic sac & yolk sac
the layer of cells that face the yolk sac is called _____. the layer of cells that face the amniotic sac is called ____.
endoderm / ectoderm
the groove that forms in the surface of the ectoderm is called the _____. the head of this is called_____. this groove establishes _____.
primitive streak / Henson's node/ the longitudinal axis of the embryo
once the primitive streak is formed ____ fall into the groove and begin to spread in between the ____ & _____ (germ layers) and form the third germ layer called ____.
cells / ectoderm & endoderm / mesoderm
mesoderm is arranged as _____ and ectoderm & endoderm are arranged as ______.
mesenchyme (freely migrating embryonic cell) / epithelium
The bilaminar disk is now the ____ because the third germ layer has formed.
True or False: All adult systems are traced back to the germ layers.
the nervous system arises from the ____, the gut arises from the _____, the muscles and skeleton arise from the _____.
ectoderm / endoderm / mesoderm
the ____ is derived from mesoderm and provides support to the embryo.
the ___ are the reminence of the notochord.
mesoderm starts to condense into solid blocks called ___. the ____ mesoderm is the area of the mesoderm that thins out. the ____ mesoderm divides into two parts and the ____ is formed.
somites / intermediate / lateral plate mesoderm / coelum
the part of the lateral plate mesoderm that becomes associated with the ectoderm is called _____.
*note SOMITIC mesoderm is associated with somites
the part of the lateral plate mesoderm that becomes associated with the endoderm is called ____.