Human Relations & Group Dynamics

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17 terms · Text: Johnson & Johnson, 10th Edition

Ways In Which Group Dynamics Impact Your life

- central to maintaining viable family
- central to effective business & industries
- central to education
- central to long-term maintenance of psychological health

ROLES

Expectations defining appropriate behavior of an occupant of a position, toward other related positions (ex: President, VP, secretary)

NORMS

Common beliefs re: group members' appropriate behavior, attitudes, & perceptions, rules, implicit/explicit, regulate behavior of group members. (ex: promptness, courtesy)

PSEUDOGROUP

- group whose members have been assigned to work together but who have no interest in doing so. (ex: regional sales team)

TRADITIONAL WORK GROUP

- group whose members are assigned to work together and accept that they have to do so. (ex: students in a teacher designated study group)

EFFECTIVE GROUP

- "more than the sum of its parts"; group whose members commit to maximizing their own & one another's success. (ex: sports team)

HIGH-PERFORMANCE GROUP

- group which meets all effective group criteria and out performs all reasonable expectations, given its membership; rare.

REFERENCE GROUP

- group people identify with, compare their attitudes to, and use as a means of evaluating those attitudes.

ROLE CONFLICT

- when expectations of the obligations that accompany a role can conflict. (contradictory, incompatibility).

INDIVIDUALISTIC ORIENTATION

- focuses on the individual in the group; scientists explain group functioning thru attitudes/cognitions/personalities of the members of the group.

GROUP ORIENTATION

- focuses on the group as a whole; scientists explain group functioning thru influences of the group & larger social systems.

SMALL GROUPS

- primary groups characterized by face-to-face interaction, interdependence, & strong group identification. (ex: family, close friends)

AGGREGATE

- a collection of individuals present at the same time & place but who do not form a unit or have common degree of similarity. (ex: individuals standing on street corner, audience members at a play)

GROUP

-# of individuals join together to achieve a goal
-several individuals who are interdependent
-individuals who are interacting w/one another
-social unit w/2 or more persons, perceive themselves part of a group
-collection of individuals w/set of norms & roles
-collection of individuals who influence each other
-collection of individuals trying to satisfy some personal need, thru joint association

IMPORTANCE OF GROUPS

- Humans are small group beings
- Essential to the survival of the species
- Living conditions depended on cooperative efforts of group work for success.

EFFECTIVE GROUPS

- structured goals, 2-way communication, participation/leadership, ability/information/power, shared decision-making, structured controversy, equal conflict mgmt, cohesion, individuality endorsed.

INEFFECTIVE GROUPS

- imposed goals, 1-way communication, delegated/leadership, position=power, members not involved in decision-making, unequal conflict mgmt., cohesion ignored/rigid conformity

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