people from Etruria , ( north of Rome) that took control of Rome and Latium. Ruled Rome for more than 100 years. Built up Rome, streets, temples. Skilled metal workers Rome became rich from mining and trade
The ancient Roman state from 509 BC until Augustus assumed power in 27 BC. was governed by an elected Senate but dissatisfaction with the Senate led to civil wars that culminated in a brief dictatorship by Julius Caesar.
the Roman laws written down on 12 tables so that the Patricians couldn't take advantage of the Plebeians- farmers or workers, what made up a large part of the population in ancient Rome
patricians and plebeians
From the start the roman society was split into two classes. The patricians who were considered to be the upper class could serve as priests, senators and magistrate. The plebeians were the commoners- farmers, laborers and artisans. The wealth did not define the class, some plebeians were rich and more patricians could be poor.
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
3 stages: 1. uniting of italien peninsula 2. the collision w/ Carthage 3. the subjugation of Hellenistic states. Uniting of Italy, Italians honored them. Conquest of the Med. Were great fighters, fought in formation of phalant, tried to control carthage, happened because of Pro-expansionist faction (group of patricians)
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
Formed Second Triumvirate in 43BC with Antony and Lepidus after Caesar's death,reduced power of the Senate, began a period known as Pax Romana or Roman Peace. accomplishments- greatly expanded the frontiers, reduced power of the senate
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. (151)
Roman peace,' The stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cuture/ideas (154)
allowed for better military transportation and facilitated trade throughout their empire. Cities grew larger and more powerful.
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
allowed Roman empire to trade with many different places thus increasing the economy
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities
bread and circus
what the emperor gave to entertain and feed the poor to stop rebellion
the head of the family or household in Roman law -always male- and the only member to have full legal rights. This person had absolute power over his family, which extended to life and death.
35% of the population in Rome was slaves making it a true slave society - The prices of slaves varied depending on a number of factors such as abilities, looks - They were exploited physically, economically, socially, and sexually
Romans recognized many gods& goddesses who they believed intervened w/human affairs. Jupiter:principal god, lord of heaven, Mars;god of war, Ceres;goddess of grain, Janus;god who watched threshold of homes, Vesta;goddess of hearth. Romans also honored tutelary deities, who looked after welfare of individual families. As Rome expanded, they met other religious&cultural traditions&used them for their own purposes. Etruscan goddess Juno, moon goddess, Minerva, goddess of wisdom&religious practices like divination of the future through examination of organs of sacrificed animals.
called on upperclass Romans to work together to make Rome a better place and wanted the Romans to give more support to the Senate and to restore checks and balances on government
emphasized reason as a means of understanding the natural state of things, or logos, and as a means of freeing oneself from emotional distress
Dates around the 15th century b.c. Mythraism emerged from Persia. Mithras meant sun but also meant friend so their god was worshipped as the sun but this was hellenized.
Worshippers of the Egyptian god Isis but was Hellenized to a degree by the Ptolemy and continued to the Roman Empire
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
This religion is a belief in one God and in Jesus Christ as the messiah who freed followers from Roman rule and fulfilled the prophesy of the scriptures.
jesus of nazareth
a teacher and prophet born in bethlehem and active in nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for christianity
paul of tarsus
A Jew from Asia Minor that played the most influential role in the spread of Christianity. Paul never met Jesus but he had a vision one day of speaking to him. Executed because spreading of Christianity was a threat to the government.