A&P Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue

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Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

Osteoclast

Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

parathyroid hormone

Vertebrae are considered ____ bones.

irregular

The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40_______.

reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization.

A bone fracture perpendicular to the bone's axis is called a ______ fracture.

transverse

Wolff's law is concerned with _____.

the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it.

Cranial bones develop _____.

within fibrous membranes

Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tent to decrease blood calcium levels?

thyroid

Osteomylitis is _____?

due to pus-forming bacteria

Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. Apositional growth is _____.

the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?

Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ____.

by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis.

Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ______.

trabeculae

Osteogenesis is the process of _____.

Bone formation

Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancey and youth is exclusively through ____.

interstitial growth of the epiephyseal plates.

Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?

growth hormone

In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?

elevated levels of sex hormones

It is thought that remodeling or bone growth is in response to the forces placed on it. Which of the following hypotheses may explain how mechanical forces communicate with cells responding for bone remodeling?

Electrical signals direct the remodeling process

Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of _____.

calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

Which fracture would be least likely in a 92 yr old?

greenstick

_____ are not one of the four cell types that populate bone tissue in adults.

Mesenchymal cells

Osteoalgia is ______.

pain in a bone

The structrue of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

Compact bone

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ______.

fat

The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ______.

osteoblast

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

hyaline cartilage

In bone formation, a deficiency of growth hormone will cause _____.

decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage.

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the _____ .

diaphysis

The term diploe refers to ______.

the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

Select the correct statement concernng the location of blood-forming tissue.

The sternum(breastbone) is a good source of blood forming tissue.

Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include ____.

drinking fluorinated water

Ossification of the ends of long bones _____.

is produced by secondary ossification centers.

Cartilage is found in strategic places in the human skeleton. What is responsible for the resilience of cartilage?

high water content

The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is _____.

hyaline

Which of the following is not the function of the skeletal system?

communication

The structural unit of compact bone is ____?

the osteon

Bones are covered and lined by protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ______.

osteoblasts and osteoclasts

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called _______.

Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

The canall that runs through the core of each osteon( the Haversian canal) is the site of _____?

blood vessels and nerve fibers

The small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live are called _____.

lacunae

For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

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