Upper tract urothelial cancer

14 terms by jxa130 

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What are risk factors for upper tract cancer?

Balkan descent, smoking, ? coffee consumption, analgesic abuse, occupational exposure, Chinese herb (aristocolic acid)

What hereditary syndrome is associated with ureteral tumors, colon tumors, and other tumors?

Lynch syndrome II - autosomal dominant defect in DNA mismatch repair gene hMLH1 and hMSH2. Associated with lots of tumors: colon, ureteral, uterine, pancreatic, ovarian

T/F Ureteral invasion is more common than bladder invasion

True
Prognosis is typically better for RP tumors

What is a T3 upper tract tumor?

Invasion into sinus/peri-ureteral fat or renal parenchyma

What laser is safer in the ureter?

Holmium:YAG (shallower penetration)

Which laser is better in the RP?

Nd:YAG (works by coagulative necrosis and has deeper penetration)

What should you do after upper tract antegrade ureteroscopy?

Second look in 4-14 days

What is the recurrence rate for retrograde ureteroscopic management of ureteral tumors?

30%

What is the most common complication of upper tract instillation of drugs?

Sepsis

What type of tumor are 90% of upper tract cancers?

UC
Small percentage squamous, adeno, and inverted papilloma

What is Balkan nephropathy?

Interstitial nephritis that causes renal failure in Balkans. Cause unknown. Have 100-200 fold greater risk of UTUC and more likely to develop bilateral disease

What is a good indicator of stage in ureteral cancer?

Grade

What is the most important prognostic factor in ureteral cancer?

Grade

Where is the majority of upper tract UC?

70% distal ureter
25% mid ureter
5% proximal ureter

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