Mahmud of Ghazni
Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.
created by the Sultan Mahmud; lasted from 1206 AD to 1526 AD; the first Muslim empire in India
monsoons and irrigation advances
in dry months stored rainwater in large reservoirs connected to canals as there was no big river in S. India
hindu temples served as economic + social center by maintaining order and delivering taxes, also acted as bank
Self-sufficient in staple food, metals, spices, special crops found only in certain regions and through trade, south India and Ceylon experienced rapid economic growth
indian ocean trade
Large amounts of trade happened in this body of water between Arab, Persian, Turkish, Indian, African, Chinese, and Europe merchants. Particularly in the postclassical period 9600-1450)
Ship of small to moderate size used in the western Indian Ocean, traditionally with a triangular sail and a sewn timber hull. (p. 382)
A very large flatbottom sailing ship produced in the Tang and Song Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel.
India being in the middle of the Indian Ocean it was a natural site for this and warehouses, traders exchanged their cargoes at Cambay, Calicut or Quilon for goods to take back west with the winter monsoon
Indian trade surged after the development of dynasties, and as a result this was introduced. They were big on iron and steel production, as well as textiles of cotton
The Christian state in Africa that developed its own branch of Christianity, Coptic Christianity, because it was cut off from other Christians due to a large Muslim presence in Africa. Present-day Ethiopia, large trading capital.
expansion of the caste system
The caste was already present in north India, but became established in the south due to economic development, the emergence of workers' guilds, & powerful temple/ brahmins influence
devotional cults (such as for Shiva and Vishnu) to achieve mystic union with gods as a way of salvation
indian influence in SE asia
merchants spread religion, SE Asia adopted some Indian politics, states sponsored buddhism + hinduism, however did not take caste system