group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce fertile offspring
preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce (ex. beak shape)
gradual change in a species over time
well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species
any difference between individuals of the same species
similar structures that related species have inherited from a common ancestor
diagram that shows how scientists think different groups of organisms are related
Minerals replace the remains, changing them into rock
hollow space in sediment in the shape of an organism or part of an organism
mold may become filled with hardened minerals and a cast is a copy of the shape of the organism that made the mold
can help scientists determine whether one fossil is older than another, but does not tell actual age
allows scientists to determine actual age of fossils
unstable elements that decay into different elements
the time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample to decay
millions of fossils that scientists have collected
no members of that species are still alive
theory that proposes that evolution occurs slowly but steadily
theory that proposes that species evolve quickly during relatively short periods
basic unit of structure and function in living things
theory that states that all living things are made of cells, cells are the smallest units of life, and cells can only come from other living cells
large molecules made from smaller molecules joined together
energy storage molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
information containing macromolecules found in the nucleus of a cell
macromolecules made from amino acids; found in membranes and many other cell structures
energy storage macromolecules which do not dissolve in water
long chains of molecules which combine in a specific order to make nucleic acids
building blocks of proteins
(deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule found in the nucleus which contains instructions for all things needed for life
(ribonucleic acid) gets information from DNA to make proteins
ability to maintain stable internal conditions in the cell
energy-requiring process in which transport protiens bind with particles and move them through a cell membrane.
a type of passive transport in cells in which molecules move from areas where there are more of them to areas where there are fewer of them.
process by which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane.
a type of protien that regulates nearly all chemical reactions in cells; a type of protien that speeds up chemical reactions in the body without being changed or use up itself.
occurs when molecules of one substance are spread evenly throughout the other substance.
type "easy going"
process by which oxygen-lacking cells and some one-celled organisms release small amounts of energy from glucose molecules and produce waste such as alcohol, carbon dioxide, and lactic acid.
compound, such as H20, that is made form elements other than carbon and whose atoms usually can be arranged in only one structure.
the total of all chemical reactions in an organism.
a combination of substances in which the individual susbtances do not change or combine chemically but instead retain their own individual properties; can be gases, solids, liquids, or any combination of them.
compounds that always contain hydrogen and carbon; carbohydrate, lipids, protiens, and nucleic acids are these and are found in living things.
a type of passive transport that occurs when water diffuses through a cell membrane.
movement of substances through a cell membrane without the use of cellular energy; includes diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion.
process by which plants and many other producers use light energy to produce a simple sugar from carbon dioxide and water and give off oxygen.
process by which producers and consumers release stored energy from food molecules; series of chemical reactions used to release energy stored in food molecules.
the basic unit of structure and function in an organism
organism of many cells
a change in an organism's surroundings
an action or change in behavior
the process of change that occurs during an organism's life
mistaken idea that living things can arise from nonliving things
organisms that make their own food
organisms that can NOT make their own food
maintenance of stable internal conditions
the process of grouping things based on their similarities
scientific study of how living things are classified
naming of organisms system that Linnaeus used
classification grouping that contains similar, closely related organisms
a group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring
organisms whose cells lack a nucleus
a dense area in a cell that contains the nucleic acids-the chemical instructions that direct the cell's activities
organisms with cells that have a nucleus
A way of learning about the natural world
The process of using one or more of your senses to gather info
An observation that deals with a number or amount
An observation that deals with characteristics
An interpretation based on observations and prior knowledge
The process of forecasting what will happen based on past experiences
The process of grouping things based on their similarties
The process of creating representations
The study of living things
Propose explanations based on evidence they gather
A possible explanation for a set of observations
A factor in an experiment that can change
The factor that changes as a result of change
A statement that describes how to measure a certain variable
Facts, Figures, and other evidence gathered through observations
The process of sharing ideas with others through writing and speaking
How people modify the world around them to meet their needs
A person who is trained to use both technological and scientific knowledge
The one factor that a scientist changes during an experiment
An experiment in which only the one variable is manipulated at a time
basic unit of all living things
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
strong wall outside a plant cell's cell membrane that protects the cell and maintains its shape
a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
organelle that controls all the activities of a cell and contains hereditary material made of proteins and DNA
a structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food
bean shaped organelle that releases energy from stored food molecules which supplies energy for the cell
an organelle that is resposible for making proteins.
a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
A structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell.
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
Any living thing
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
A process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
a structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material
an organelle that stores food, water, and other materials needed by the cell
organisms composed of many cells
a type of organism that is made up of a single cell