Ch. 3 Cell Structure
|Light Microscope and Electron Microscope||Look to chapter 1 notes|
|Transmission electron microscope|| An electron beam is directed at a very thin slice of specimen stained with metal ions.|
Can reveal a cell's internal structure with fine detail.
|Scanning Electron Microscope|| An electron beam is focused on a specimen coated with a thin layer of metal.|
shows 3D images of cell surfaces.
|Scanning Tunneling Microscope|| Uses a needle-like probe to measure differences in voltage caused by electrons that leak, or tunnel, from the surface of the object being viewed.|
Objects as small as individual atoms can be viewed.
|Resolution||A measure of the clarity of an image.|
|Magnification||The quality of making an image appear larger than its actual size.|
|The Cell Theory|| All living things are made up of one or more cells.|
All cells come from existing cells.
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms.
|Cell Membrane|| Encloses the cell and separates the cell interior from its surroundings.|
It regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
Made of a lipid bilayer with a phosphate head and fatty acid tails.
|Nucleus|| Houses the DNA and controls the functions of a cell.|
Has a nuclear membrane and a nucleolus.
|Endoplasmic Reticulum|| An extensive system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances through the cell.|
Rough ER has ribosomes on it.
Smooth ER doesn't have ribosomes on it.
|Golgi Apparatus||A set of flattened, membrane bound sacs that serves as the packaging and distribution center of the cell.|
|Lysosomes||Small spherical organelles that contain the cell's digestive enzymes.|
|Mitochondria|| Harvests energy from organic compounds to make ATP, the main energy currency of cells.|
Has an inner and outer membrane.
|Chloroplasts|| The mitochondria of plant cells.|
Use light energy to make carbs from carbon dioxide and water.
Same structure and function of mitochondria.
|Central Vacuole||stores water and may contain many substances including ions nutrients and wastes.|
|Cell Wall|| A thick wall that surrounds the cell membrane composed of proteins and carbs, including the polysaccharide cellulose.|
Helps support and maintain the shape of the cell, protects it from damage, and connects it with adjacent cells.