portuguese sugar plantations
1400s: were slave-run, seeking new cropland and new slaves, by late 15th century eastern atlantic islands were occupied by slave workers.
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic. (p. 427)
adoption of magnetic compass, built larger ships
volto do mar
The Volto do mar, meaning "return through the sea" was a strategy the European mariners used to get from the Canary Islands to Portugal, and then later on other destinations. Because of the strong trade winds that blew from the northeast, the journey was slow and dangerous. Using the volto do mar, it took them out of the way of their journey, but made the journey much faster by using the westerly winds and turning east. During Vasco da Gama's journey from 1497-1498, he used the volto do mar to get to India. The Europeans developed different ways to use the volto do mar to get to various other destinations as time progressed, which makes it very influential. Without it, the Europeans would have much difficulty getting to other places to trade, convert, and explore. These journeys would be much longer and more perilous. The volto do mar can be related to the magnetic compass invented by the Chinese that greatly influenced the way the Chinese navigated the waters.
prince henry the navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
vasco da gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route. (p. 428)
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
(1480?-1521) Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. (The same year HRE Charles V became empreor.) Magellan was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779)
portuguese trading posts
Goa, Macao, Spice Islands, attempted to control trade routes
established in Asia by the british, dutch, and portuguese, colonization of small groups of merchants
conquest of the philippines
spanish forces came here, commanded by Miguel López de Legazpi. he was a successful conqueror (took over Cebu and Manila) no resistance to his intrusion, spain soon controlled the coast, central, and northern islands of the Philippines
Heavily armed, fast ships that brought luxury goods from China to Mexico and carried silver from Mexico to China.
conquest of java
dutch mariners worked on trade with spices, cloves, nutmeg, and mace
-Jan Pieterszoon Coen was the entrepôt for the VOC, founded the city of batavia
-attracted chinese & malay vessels
-made a monopoly of spice trade for the VOC by making alliances with Amboina and Banda Islands that produced cloves
-violent to people who did not obey the monopoly rules.
-made netherlands the most prosperous lands in Europe
seven year's war
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
impact of columbian exchange
Spread of Christianity affected belief systems, guns used for hunting and subdued native people, tools transformed farming, plant exchanged transformed diets, deadly diseases introduced
environmental impacts of trade
invasive species came in and outcompeted many species already living there, disrupted ecosystem