The form of political society that combines centralized government with a high degree of ethnic and cultural unity
The form of society in which family line, power, and wealth are passed primarily through the female side.
A small vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails
Concerning the general characteristics of a given population, including such factors as numbers, age, gender, birth and death rates, and so on.
A Spanish conqueror or adventurer in the Americas.
An economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, and open and accessible markets.
The Spanish labor system in which persons were held to unpaid service under the permanent control of their masters, though not legally owned by them.
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestry.
Great Ice Age
Extended period when glaciers covered most of the North American continent
Staple crop that formed the economic foundation if Indian civilization
Important Mississippian culture site, near present East St. Louis, Illinois
First European nation to send explorers around the west coast of Africa
Flourishing West African kingdom that had its capital and university at Timbuktu
Animal introduced by Europeans that transformed the Indian way of life on the Great Plains
small pox, malaria, yellow fever
Among the major European diseases that devastated Native American populations after 1492
Disease originating in the Americas that was transmitted to Europeans after 1492
Treaty of Tordesilla
Treaty that secured Spanish title to lands in the Americas by dividing them with Portugal
Wealthy capital of the Aztec empire
Indian uprising in New Mexico caused by Spanish efforts to suppress Indian religion
Indian people of the Rio Grande Valley who were cruelly oppressed by the Spanish conquerors
Roman Catholic religious order of friars that organized a chain of missions in California
Ferdinand and Isabella
Financiers and beneficiaries of Columbus's voyages to the New World
Known for the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Know for the Spanish conquest of the Incan Empire
Inland sea, left by melting glaciers whose remnant is the Great Salt Lake
Dias and da Gamma
Portuguese navigators who sailed around the African coast
Italian-born explorer who thought that he had arrived off the coast of Asia rather than on unknown continents
Female Indian slave who served as interpreter for Cortés
Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conqueror Cortés
Legendary founder of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy
Founded in 1565, the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in United States territory
Italian-born navigator sent by the English to explore the North American coast in 1498
Franciscan missionary who settled California